Gender and Bible Translation
My former student Rick Hale compared how different Bible translations rendered the Greek word “anthropos” (from which we get “anthropology,” the study of humans) in passages that (a) could reasonably have both men and women in view and (b) are translated with gender inclusive language in the NET Bible. The table provides interpretation of ‘anthropos’ in the specified Bible translations for each passage listed.
Translation of ‘anthropos’ (Strongs 444)
Passages below (a) could reasonably have both men and women in view and (b) are translated with gender inclusive language in the NET Bible. The table provides interpretation of ‘anthropos’ in the specified Bible translations for each passage listed.
|Passage||KJV (1611)||NKJV (1982)||RSV (1952)||ESV (2001)||NASB (2020)||NIV (2011)||CSB (2017)||NET (2005)|
|1 Cor 2:5||men||men||men||men||mankind||human||human||human|
|1 Cor 4:1||man||man||one||one||person||you||person||one|
|1 Cor 7:7||men||men||all||all||men||all||people||everyone|
|1 Cor 11:28||man||man||man||person||person||everyone||person||person|
|1 Cor 14:2||men||men||men||men||people||people||people||people|
|1 Cor 14:3||men||men||men||people||people||people||people||people|
|2 Cor 3:2||men||men||men||all||people||everyone||everyone||everyone|
|2 Cor 5:11||men||men||men||others||people||others||people||people|
|2 Cor 12:4||man||man||man||man||man||one||human||person|
|1 Timothy 2:1||men||men||men||people||people||people||everyone||people|
|1 Timothy 2:5||men||men||men||men||mankind||mankind||humanity||humanity|
|1 Timothy 4:10||men||men||men||people||mankind||people||people||people|
|1 Timothy 5:24||men||men||men||people||people||some||people||people|
|1 Timothy 6:11||man||man||man||man||man||man||man||person|
|2 Timothy 2:2||men||men||men||men||people||people||men||people|
|2 Timothy 3:17||man||man||man||man||Man/woman||servant||man||person|
|# of ‘man/men’ occurrences||70||69||64||32||9||5||5||0|
All passages from the table are included below, for reference. All passages are from the NET Bible.
Matthew 4:19: He said to them, “Follow me, and I will turn you into fishers of people.
Matthew 10:17: Beware of people, because they will hand you over to councils and flog you in their synagogues.
Matthew 10:32: “Whoever, then, acknowledges me before people, I will acknowledge before my Father in heaven.
Matthew 10:33: But whoever denies me before people, I will deny him also before my Father in heaven.
Matthew 12:12: How much more valuable is a person than a sheep! So it is lawful to do good on the Sabbath.
Matthew 15:18: But the things that come out of the mouth come from the heart, and these things defile a person.
Matthew 21:26: But if we say, ‘From people,’ we fear the crowd, for they all consider John to be a prophet.”
Matthew 23:5: They do all their deeds to be seen by people, for they make their phylacteries wide and their tassels long.
Mark 1:17: Jesus said to them, “Follow me, and I will turn you into fishers of people.
Mark 7:8: Having no regard for the command of God, you hold fast to human tradition.
Mark 7:15: There is nothing outside of a person that can defile him by going into him. Rather, it is what comes out of a person that defiles him.
Mark 8:36: For what benefit is it for a person to gain the whole world, yet forfeit his life?
Mark 10:9: Therefore what God has joined together, let no one separate.
Mark 10:27: Jesus looked at them and replied, “This is impossible for mere humans, but not for God; all things are possible for God.”
Mark 11:30: John’s baptism—was it from heaven or from people? Answer me.”
Luke 2:14:Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace among people with whom he is pleased!”
Luke 2:52: And Jesus increased in wisdom and in stature, and in favor with God and with people.
Luke 5:10: and so were James and John, Zebedee’s sons, who were Simon’s business partners. Then Jesus said to Simon, “Do not be afraid; from now on you will be catching people.
Luke 7:31: To what then should I compare the people of this generation, and what are they like?
Luke 9:25: For what does it benefit a person if he gains the whole world but loses or forfeits himself?
Luke 11:24: “When an unclean spirit goes out of a person, it passes through waterless places looking for rest but not finding any. Then it says, ‘I will return to the home I left.’
Luke 11:44: Woe to you! You are like unmarked graves, and people walk over them without realizing it!”
Luke 11:46: But Jesus replied, “Woe to you experts in religious law as well! You load people down with burdens difficult to bear, yet you yourselves refuse to touch the burdens with even one of your fingers!
Luke 20:4: John’s baptism—was it from heaven or from people?”
Luke 21:26: People will be fainting from fear and from the expectation of what is coming on the world, for the powers of the heavens will be shaken.
John 1:9: The true light, who gives light to everyone, was coming into the world.
John 3:19: Now this is the basis for judging: that the light has come into the world and people loved the darkness rather than the light, because their deeds were evil.
John 3:27: John replied, “No one can receive anything unless it has been given to him from heaven.
John 5:34:(I do not accept human testimony, but I say this so that you may be saved.)
Acts 4:12: And there is salvation in no one else, for there is no other name under heaven given among people by which we must be saved.”
Acts 5:29: But Peter and the apostles replied, “We must obey God rather than people.
Acts 22:15: because you will be his witness to all people of what you have seen and heard.
Acts 24:16: This is the reason I do my best to always have a clear conscience toward God and toward people.
Romans 1:18: For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of people who suppress the truth by their unrighteousness,
Romans 3:4: Absolutely not! Let God be proven true, and every human being shown up as a liar, just as it is written: “so that you will be justified in your words and will prevail when you are judged.”
Romans 3:28: For we consider that a person is declared righteous by faith apart from the works of the law.
Romans 5:18: Consequently, just as condemnation for all people came through one transgression, so too through the one righteous act came righteousness leading to life for all people.
Romans 12:17: Do not repay anyone evil for evil; consider what is good before all people.
Romans 14:18: For the one who serves Christ in this way is pleasing to God and approved by people.
1 Cor 2:5: so that your faith would not be based on human wisdom but on the power of God.
1 Cor 4:1: One should think about us this way—as servants of Christ and stewards of the mysteries of God.
1 Cor 7:7: I wish that everyone was as I am. But each has his own gift from God, one this way, another that.
1 Cor 11:28: A person should examine himself first, and in this way let him eat the bread and drink of the cup.
1 Cor 14:2: For the one speaking in a tongue does not speak to people but to God, for no one understands; he is speaking mysteries by the Spirit.
1 Cor 14:3: But the one who prophesies speaks to people for their strengthening, encouragement, and consolation.
2 Cor 3:2: You yourselves are our letter, written on our hearts, known and read by everyone
2 Cor 5:11: Therefore, because we know the fear of the Lord, we try to persuade people, but we are well known to God, and I hope we are well known to your consciences too.
2 Cor 12:4: was caught up into paradise and heard things too sacred to be put into words, things that a person is not permitted to speak.
Galatians 2:16: yet we know that no one is justified by the works of the law but by the faithfulness of Jesus Christ.
Galatians 6:7: Do not be deceived. God will not be made a fool. For a person will reap what he sows,
Ephesians 3:5: Now this secret was not disclosed to people in former generations as it has now been revealed to his holy apostles and prophets by the Spirit
Ephesians 3:16: I pray that according to the wealth of his glory he may grant you to be strengthened with power through his Spirit in the inner person
Ephesians 6:7: Obey with enthusiasm, as though serving the Lord and not people,
Colossians 1:28: We proclaim him by instructing and teaching all people with all wisdom so that we may present every person mature in Christ.
1 Timothy 2:1: First of all, then, I urge that requests, prayers, intercessions, and thanks be offered on behalf of all people,
1 Timothy 2:5: For there is one God and one intermediary between God and humanity, Christ Jesus, himself human,
1 Timothy 4:10: In fact this is why we work hard and struggle, because we have set our hope on the living God, who is the Savior of all people, especially of believers.
1 Timothy 5:24: The sins of some people are obvious, going before them into judgment, but for others, they show up later.
1 Timothy 6:11: But you, as a person dedicated to God, keep away from all that. Instead pursue righteousness, godliness, faithfulness, love, endurance, and gentleness.
2 Timothy 2:2: And entrust what you heard me say in the presence of many others as witnesses to faithful people who will be competent to teach others as well.
2 Timothy 3:17: that the person dedicated to God may be capable and equipped for every good work.
Titus 2:11: For the grace of God has appeared, bringing salvation to all people.
Titus 3:8: This saying is trustworthy, and I want you to insist on such truths, so that those who have placed their faith in God may be intent on engaging in good works. These things are good and beneficial for all people.
Titus 3:10: Reject a divisive person after one or two warnings.
James 1:7: For that person must not suppose that he will receive anything from the Lord,
James 2:24: You see that a person is justified by works and not by faith alone.
James 3:9: With it we bless the Lord and Father, and with it we curse people made in God’s image.
Revelation 9:6: In those days people will seek death, but will not be able to find it; they will long to die, but death will flee from them.
Revelation 9:15: Then the four angels who had been prepared for this hour, day, month, and year were set free to kill a third of humanity.
Revelation 16:8: Then there were flashes of lightning, roaring, and crashes of thunder, and there was a tremendous earthquake—an earthquake unequaled since humanity has been on the earth, so tremendous was that earthquake.