The Old Covenant Book of Leviticus outlines five special Levitical fire offerings and sacrifices. The Burnt Offering is for the sanctification of the whole man in self-surrender to the Lord even unto death. The Meal Offering is the fruit of that sanctification. The Peace Offering is the blossoming of the possession and enjoyment of saving grace. The Sin Offering is for making amends for sin. The Trespass Offering was for the restoration of rights that had been violated.
The New Testament views all the old covenant sacrifices as types of the death of Christ. That is, the five sacrifices bring out different aspects and significance of His one sacrificial death on the cross. Lambs sacrificed every morning and evening were the most typical victim, so Jesus is called ‘the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world’ (John 1:29). Indeed he died at the time of the evening sacrifice. (3)
The Peace Offering (Leviticus 3:1-17)
The third Levitical offering is the Peace, Fellowship, or Communion Offering. The Hebrew name for the Peace Offering is zebach shlamim; literally, it means “sacrifices of peaces.” The second word, shlamim, comes from the well known Hebrew word shalom, which means “peace” or “to make peace.” This was a voluntary thanksgiving offering. It emphasized complete well being and harmony, not merely the absence of war. The uniqueness of this offering is that certain parts were burned on the Altar providing a sweet-smelling aroma to God, but the rest was given back to the petitioner. That is the one who offered it got most of it back. This was the believer’s way of participating in the blessings of the fellowship or communion with God and the community via a shared ceremonial meal. (2)
The Old Testament idea of peace (shalom) had ethical considerations of completeness, wellness, prosperity, friendship, and happiness. The peace offerings (shelamin) had right relations or harmony as their basic thought. The prominent and distinct feature of the ritual of the peace offering was the common meal afterward, signifying peace with God who was personified in His representative, the Levitical priest (Lev 7:15). The prophet, using the peace offering as a thing that will contrast and complement, spoke of Israel’s millennial bliss as “the work of righteousness will be peace” (Isaiah 32:17). (5)
The Peace Offering is not mentioned explicitly in the New Covenant. Implicitly, it is found in Acts 21:23–26 which deals with offerings at the conclusion of a vow and the Peace Offering in its votive form would be used for that purpose.
Peace Offering Occasions
Voluntary Offering of two forms, either as a:
- Thanksgiving offering (thanksgiving and confessional offering) in Leviticus 7:12–14; 22:29, and it is almost synonymous with the fellowship offerings of 2 Chronicles 29:31; 33:16; and Jeremiah 17:26. It was brought as an acknowledgment of God’s deliverance or blessing bestowed as an answer to prayer (Psalms 56:12–13; 107:22; 116:17-19; Jeremiah 33:11). This offering also included cakes of unleavened and leavened bread shared with the officiating priest. (Leviticus 7:12–14 NET) or
- Freewill offering (a spontaneous freewill offering) (Psalms 54:6) to express devotion and thanksgiving to God for some unexpected blessing (Leviticus 7:16 and 22:17–20).
Required Offering in one form:
- Votive Offering (i.e., offered or consecrated in fulfillment of a vow) individual offering for the fulfillment of a vow (Leviticus 7:12, 16. Psalms 56:12,13). It was regularly preceded by a Burnt Offering (Leviticus 3:5). It was a ritual expression of a vow in Leviticus 27:9–10. When a Nazirite fulfilled his vow, this is the sacrifice he would need to offer according to Numbers 6:17–20.
Required offering in two forms:
- Ordination of a priest (Leviticus 9:4)
- Mandatory during the Feast of Weeks (Leviticus 23:19) (see “Sacrifices and Offerings of the Old Covenant” table immediately below).
The animal to be sacrificed had to have the following four general characteristics. The animal had to be:
- ceremonially clean,
- utilitarian, meaning “usable for food” or sustenance,
- domesticated (i.e., those that obeyed their master’s will; although some wild game animals were permissible for food, no game animal was permissible for sacrifice), and
- costly; the selection of the animal was based upon the economic status of the individual Jewish member of the commonwealth.
If the individual were wealthy, he had to offer an expensive sacrifice; if he were poor, he could offer a less expensive sacrifice, nevertheless, it would have to be costly relative to his economic status. As Moses deals with the specific animals allowed, the progression always goes from the most expensive to the least expensive as follows:
- Male sheep or goat
- Female sheep or goat
The kinds of animals for the Peace Offering and the details as to how they were offered closely parallel the Burnt Offering.
In addition, the animal to be sacrificed had to meet the following three criteria:
- Condition – perfect without spot, blemish, disease, or deformity,
- Gender – Male or Female (4), and
- Age – generally, the animal had to be one year old [e.g., a lamb at the peak of life and health]. Sometimes it could be as young as eight days old (Leviticus 22:27) and or as old as three years. (2)
Again, any male or female animal from flocks such as sheep and goats and herds of cattle without blemish were used based on the social status of the offerer, but not birds. Birds were not allowed for a Peace Offering, because a bird would not provide sufficient meat for a full, festive meal. (4)
Required Grain Offering
Thanksgiving Peace Offering
If he presents it on account of thanksgiving, along with the thank offering sacrifice he must present unleavened loaves mixed with olive oil, unleavened wafers smeared with olive oil, and well soaked ring-shaped loaves made of choice wheat flour mixed with olive oil. He must present this grain offering in addition to ring-shaped loaves of leavened bread which regularly accompany the sacrifice of his thanksgiving peace offering. (Leviticus 7:12–13 NET)
When offered as a thanksgiving offering, it was accompanied by a Grain offering (1) of:
“cakes of unleaved (i.e., without yeast) bread and mixed with olive oil, unleavened wafers spread with oil, and unleavened cakes of fine flour well-kneaded and mixed with oil” (Leviticus 7:12–13). (10)
In addition, bread made with yeast was also a prescribed part of this offering. This is one of the two times that leaven is part of an offering, the other is the Two Loaves of First Fruit of Wheat during the Feast of Weeks (Feast of Pentecost) (Leviticus 23:17).
“You must not offer the blood of my sacrifice with bread containing yeast; the fat of my festal sacrifice must not remain until morning. (Exodus 23:18 NET)(cf. Exodus 34:25)
However, the Leavened bread is not to contact blood and is not offered on the altar.
There were eight sequential steps of the Peace Offering ritual.
- The worshipper brought the animal to the entrance of the tent of meeting.
- The worshipper pressed his hands on the animal’s head.
- The worshipper killed the animal.
- The priest would splash the blood of the animal over and around the Bronze Altar.
- The worshipper would butcher the animal.
- Parts of the animal were burned on the Altar by the priest providing a sweet-smelling aroma to God. (This included the kidneys, which were the symbol of one’s emotions (Job 19:27), and the fat, including the liver’s fatty lobe, which symbolized the best of the offering; the best was given to God according to Genesis 45:18. Furthermore, Israelites were forbidden to eat any fat or blood (Leviticus 3:17)).
- The priest was entitled to keep certain parts of the animal: the skin, the right thigh or shoulder (to the officiating priest), and the breast (to all other priests). (Deuteronomy 12:12. 1 Corinthians 9:13,14)
“This portion of the peace-offerings was strictly defined and might not be altered or exceeded. As we learn from Leviticus 7:28-36, the legal due was the breast, or brisket, and the right shoulder. [The right thigh or shoulder typifying the power and strength of the Messiah.] These were solemnly dedicated to the Lord (the former by being “waved,” that is, moved repeatedly in a presentation to the Saviour and Preserver on earth; the latter, by being “heaved,” or once lifted up, to the Intercessor in heaven), and were then made over to the priests.” (9)
“[Again,] …the right shoulder, considered the choicest part of the victim, was to be “heaved,” and viewed as holy to the Lord, only eaten therefore by the priest; the breast was to be “waved,” and eaten by the other priests.”(6)
“But before this was done, the fat had to be burned upon the altar, which was the appointed way of consecrating the whole sacrifice, and no portion could be lawfully appropriated till this rite was performed. The fat, or suet (for the rule referred only to the pure, internal fat, not to that which was mixed with the flesh), was thus offered, not simply because it was the most combustible part of the carcass, but because it was regarded as the best portion, the plain token of a perfect and well-nourished body. And as being God’s share, it was never to be eaten; upon its use, the same restriction was laid as upon blood (Leviticus 3:17), with this difference, that, whereas the eating of blood was forbidden under all circumstances, the interdict on the consumption of fat applied only to animals sacrificed, or to such as were capable of being sacrificed.” (9) (See The Women of the Tabernacle (1) for a case where this requirement was violated repeatedly by Eli’s two sons resulting in their deaths)
- The worshipper, his family, their servants, Levites, and the poor ate the remainder of the sacrifice (i.e., except for the “heave shoulder,” the wave breast” and the fat that was burned) as a festive meal (Deuteronomy 12:18;16:11) under certain restrictions (Leviticus 7:19-21). If it were a thanksgiving or confessional offering, it was eaten the same day. If it were offered for other reasons, it was eaten the following day. All who ate it had to be ceremonially clean and all leftovers had to be completely burned.
The Peace Offering typifies the value of the Messiah’s death in terms of its communion. It typifies the Messiah’s procuring peace with God for the sinner (Romans 5:1).
Therefore, since we have been declared righteous by faith, we have peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ, (Romans 5:1 NET)
I have told you these things so that in me you may have peace. In the world you have trouble and suffering, but take courage—I have conquered the world.” (John 16:33 NET)
In addition, it typifies the fellowship of believers with God, once again, the concept of communion.
What we have seen and heard we announce to you too, so that you may have fellowship with us (and indeed our fellowship is with the Father and with his Son Jesus Christ). Thus we are writing these things so that our joy may be complete. (1 John 1:3,4 NET)
Finely Sifted (Wheat) Flour
The grain offering was to be made of “fine flour.” In order to make coarse grain into fine flour, you must pound, grind, and sift it repeatedly. Usually, when a loaf of bread is made leaven is added so that it will rise. After the dough is allowed to rise, it is then punched down, kneaded, shaped into a loaf, and then put into the oven to bake. After baking it becomes bread for consumption.
When Jesus was on the cross, our sins, our “leaven,” were placed on Him like a garment. Jesus was beaten, punched to become fine flour, and then placed in God’s furnace of misery; the cross where he suffered God’s judgment in payment for all our sin and sins. In doing so, He became the Bread of Life!
Look, I have refined you, but not as silver; I have purified you in the furnace of misery. (Isaiah 48:10 NET)
I am the living bread that came down from heaven. If anyone eats from this bread he will live forever. The bread that I will give for the life of the world is my flesh.” (John 6:51 NET)
I am speaking to thoughtful people. Consider what I say. Is not the cup of blessing that we bless a sharing in the blood of Christ? Is not the bread that we break a sharing in the body of Christ? Because there is one bread, we who are many are one body, for we all share the one bread. (1 Corinthians 10:15–17 NET)
The Old Leaven of the Kingdom of Darkness
“ ‘No grain offering which you present to the Lord can be made with yeast, for you must not offer up in smoke any yeast or honey as a gift to the Lord. You can present them to the Lord as an offering of first fruit, but they must not go up to the altar for a soothing aroma. (Leviticus 2:11–12 NET)
No grain offering that would be offered on the altar could contain leaven or yeast.
Generally, leaven represents sin in the Bible. Consequently, most offerings contained no leaven because unleavened bread represented Jesus in His perfect, sinless life in the flesh. Jesus committed no sin, had no sin within Himself, and never knew sin; therefore, He qualified to be our sacrificial offering.
Jesus warned his disciples of four dangerous forms of leaven:
The Pharisaical Leaven of Hypocrisy
Meanwhile, when many thousands of the crowd had gathered so that they were trampling on one another, Jesus began to speak first to his disciples:
Meanwhile, when many thousands of the crowd had gathered so that they were trampling on one another, Jesus began to speak first to his disciples, “Be on your guard against the yeast of the Pharisees, which is hypocrisy. (Luke 12:1 NET)
The term hypocrite originated in the Greek drama and means to “put on the face.” The hypocrite was an actor in a play. He pretended to be something that he was not. The Pharisee pretended to be spiritual as he paraded his giving, his praying, and his fasting (Matthew 6). All of his good works were done to be “seen of men” (Matthew 23:25). Christ warned his disciples to “beware” of this leaven by making sure their inside was as good as their outside:
Hypocrites! Isaiah prophesied correctly about you when he said, ‘This people honors me with their lips, but their heart is far from me, and they worship me in vain, teaching as doctrines the commandments of men.’ ” (Matthew 15:7–9 NET)
“Woe to you, experts in the law and you Pharisees, hypocrites! You are like whitewashed tombs that look beautiful on the outside but inside are full of the bones of the dead and of everything unclean. (Matthew 23:27 NET)
In addition, the Pharisees also created laws, contrary to God’s Word, to benefit themselves and used them to control the people.
Thus you nullify the word of God by your tradition that you have handed down. And you do many things like this.” (Mark 7:13 NET))
The Liberal Leaven of the Sadducee
“Watch out,” Jesus said to them, “beware of the yeast of the Pharisees and Sadducees.” (Matthew 16:6 NET)
The Sadducees were the major ruling religious party of Christ’s day. They were very liberal with their handling of scripture interjecting their own human reasoning into the interpretation of it. They thought that the archaic writings of scripture needed to be brought up to date with modern understanding.
They proposed a parable to Jesus in Matthew 23:23-30 to prove in their minds that there couldn’t possibly be any resurrection of the dead. “A woman married and was widowed seven times by seven brethren. In the resurrection whose wife would she be?” Jesus simply corrected their reasoning with Scripture and told them they erred in two ways:
Jesus answered them, “You are deceived, because you don’t know the scriptures or the power of God. (Matthew 22:29 NET)
Not knowing Scripture – When the leaven of liberalism sets in, emphasis on the teaching, preaching, reading, memorizing, and studying of Scripture is left off, causing God’s people to perish (Hosea 4:6).
Not knowing the Power of God – The power of God is only known by believing in the Word of God. When you leave the ministry of the Word, you leave off the powerful object of our faith, the Word of God.
For I am not ashamed of the gospel, for it is God’s power for salvation to everyone who believes, to the Jew first and also to the Greek. For the righteousness of God is revealed in the gospel from faith to faith, just as it is written, “The righteous by faith will live.” (Romans 1:16–17 NET)
Consequently faith comes from what is heard, and what is heard comes through the preached word of Christ. (Romans 10:17 NET)
To purge out the leaven of liberalism in my life, I need only to ask myself if I am obeying:
Trust in the Lord with all your heart, and do not rely on your own understanding. (Proverbs 3:5 NET)
The Worldly Leaven of Herod
And Jesus ordered them, “Watch out! Beware of the yeast of the Pharisees and the yeast of Herod!” (Mark 8:15 NET)
Herod the Great was the great builder of Israel and the darling of Rome. Herod’s followers the Herodians were wholly given to the Greek culture, the Roman power, and the politics of the times. They tried to trap Jesus by asking, “Is it lawful to give unto Caesar?” (Mark 12:14) “This present world”, in every age, has had its allures. Jesus knew his disciples were going to be tempted by the leaven of worldliness, and he prayed the following to His Father:
I am not asking you to take them out of the world, but that you keep them safe from the evil one. (John 17:15 NET)
We are also instructed to be in the world but not of the world, not conformed to it (Romans 12:1-2), and definitely not in love with it (I John 2:15).
Every believer has to make his decision to either chose God or the god of this world:
“No one can serve two masters, for either he will hate the one and love the other, or he will be devoted to the one and despise the other. You cannot serve God and money. (Matthew 6:24 NET)
Beware of the leaven of Herod by considering what happened to the apostle Paul’s hand-picked disciple, whose Christianity by appearance probably would have put ours to shame:
For Demas deserted me, since he loved the present age, and he went to Thessalonica. Crescens went to Galatia and Titus to Dalmatia. (2 Timothy 4:10 NET)
The Unbelieving Leaven of the Pharisees and Sadducees
The sin of leaven is rooted in the sin of unbelief or the lack of faith of the Pharisees and Sadducees that polluted their teaching.
But the man who doubts is condemned if he eats, because he does not do so from faith, and whatever is not from faith is sin. (Romans 14:23 NET)
The Scribes, Pharisees, and Sadducees were jealous of Jesus and routinely attempted to entrap Him with their questions. They had no faith in Him, the living Word of God, or His words. They did not have God’s love in their hearts (John 5:42) and could not discern the times or who He was since faith works through love (Galatians 5:6). Rather than believing that Jesus was the promised Messiah by what He said and did in fulfillment of prophecies (Luke 7:20-23) they wanted a sign, a “magic show.” Jesus only gave them the sign of the prophet Jonah:
Now when the Pharisees and Sadducees came to test Jesus, they asked him to show them a sign from heaven. He said, “When evening comes you say, ‘It will be fair weather, because the sky is red,’ and in the morning, ‘It will be stormy today, because the sky is red and darkening.’ You know how to judge correctly the appearance of the sky, but you cannot evaluate the signs of the times. A wicked and adulterous generation asks for a sign, but no sign will be given to it except the sign of Jonah.” Then he left them and went away. (Matthew 16:1–4 NET)
But he answered them, “An evil and adulterous generation asks for a sign, but no sign will be given to it except the sign of the prophet Jonah. For just as Jonah was in the belly of the huge fish for three days and three nights, so the Son of Man will be in the heart of the earth for three days and three nights. (Matthew 12:39–40 NET)
After this confrontation, Jesus immediately left and went across the lake with His disciples. The disciples became anxious about how they would provide food to feed His followers. Recall they had witnessed Jesus’ miracle of the multiplication of the bread on two previous occasions; once for Jews and the other time for Gentiles. Jesus was attempting to help them see their “lack of faith” and used The recent confrontation with the Sadducees and Pharisees and their “lack of faith” to provide a case study.
When the disciples went to the other side, they forgot to take bread. “Watch out,” Jesus said to them, “beware of the yeast of the Pharisees and Sadducees.”So they began to discuss this among themselves, saying, “It is because we brought no bread.” When Jesus learned of this, he said, “You who have such little faith! Why are you arguing among yourselves about having no bread? Do you still not understand? Don’t you remember the five loaves for the five thousand, and how many baskets you took up? Or the seven loaves for the four thousand and how many baskets you took up? How could you not understand that I was not speaking to you about bread? But beware of the yeast of the Pharisees and Sadducees!” Then they understood that he had not told them to be on guard against the yeast in bread, but against the teaching of the Pharisees and Sadducees. (Matthew 16:5–12 NET)
Jesus warned the disciples to guard against the leaven or teaching of the Pharisees and Sadducees’ because it was not based on faith and therefore is sin. (Romans 14:23). Jesus instructed the disciples that they needed to have faith in Him and His words without the impurity of a lack of faith. The teaching of the Pharisees and Sadducees removed faith from the people because like leaven, it permeated throughout the truth that came from what Jesus taught, the true bread from Heaven.
A little yeast makes the whole batch of dough rise! (Galatians 5:9 NET)
The New Leaven of the Kingdom of God
Leaven or yeast in the New and Old Covenant typically refers to vice and evil which includes: hypocrisy, liberality with the Word of God, worldliness, and a lack of faith or unbelief which is sin (Romans 14:23). These are the leaven of the Kingdom of Darkness.
However, two Old Covenant Offerings contain, and typologically represent the New Leaven of the Kingdom of Heaven:
“ ‘This is the law of the peace offering sacrifice which he is to present to the Lord. If he presents it on account of thanksgiving, along with the thank offering sacrifice he must present unleavened loaves mixed with olive oil, unleavened wafers smeared with olive oil, and well soaked ring-shaped loaves made of choice wheat flour mixed with olive oil. He must present this grain offering in addition to ring-shaped loaves of leavened bread which regularly accompany the sacrifice of his thanksgiving peace offering. He must present one of each kind of grain offering as a contribution offering to the Lord; it belongs to the priest who splashes the blood of the peace offering. (Leviticus 7:11–14 NET)
- Ring-shaped loaves of leavened bread brought with a Peace Offering (Leviticus 7:11-14).
“ ‘You must count for yourselves seven weeks from the day after the Sabbath, from the day you bring the wave offering sheaf; they must be complete weeks. You must count fifty days—until the day after the seventh Sabbath—and then you must present a new grain offering to the Lord. From the places where you live you must bring two loaves of bread for a wave offering; they must be made from two tenths of an ephah of fine wheat flour, baked with yeast, as first fruits to the Lord. Along with the loaves of bread, you must also present seven flawless yearling lambs, one young bull, and two rams. They are to be a burnt offering to the Lord along with their grain offering and drink offerings, a gift of a soothing aroma to the Lord. You must also offer one male goat for a sin offering and two yearling lambs for a peace offering sacrifice, and the priest is to wave them—the two lambs—along with the bread of the first fruits, as a wave offering before the Lord; they will be holy to the Lord for the priest. (Leviticus 23:15–20 NET)
- “Two Firstfruit (of wheat) Loaves” of the Feast of Weeks (Pentecost) (Leviticus 23:15-20)
The Passover teaches us that Jesus our Passover Lamb has been sacrificed to give us authority over the Old Leaven of the Kingdom of Darkness
Your boasting [in the state of the local assembly] is not seemly or fitting. Do you not know with a positive assurance that a little yeast permeates and affects the entire bread dough with itself? Cleanse out completely, at once and once for all, the old yeast which is part of a world which has passed away for you and out from which you were saved, in order that you may be a fresh aggregation of individuals, even as you are without yeast. For, indeed, our Passover was slain, Christ. Wherefore, let us be keeping the feast, not with the yeast which has been relegated to a time that is past when we lived a life not for us today, neither with the yeast of malice and perniciousness, but with cakes permeated and affected by the yeast of an unadulterated life, having no admixture of evil in them, and having in them the yeast of truth. (1 Corinthians 5:6-8 WUESTNT) (XVI)
He himself bore our sins in his body on the tree, that we may cease from sinning and live for righteousness. By his wounds you were healed. (1 Peter 2:24 NET)
For sin will have no dominion over you, since you are not under law but under grace. (Romans 6:14 NET)
The Feast of First Fruits teaches believers that the resurrection of Jesus, Him the Firstfruits of those raised to eternal life, has given us the power over the Old Leaven of the Kingdom of Darkness.
My aim is to know him, to experience the power of his resurrection, to share in his sufferings, and to be like him in his death, and so, somehow, to attain to the resurrection from the dead. (Philippians 3:10–11 NET)
The Feast of Unleavened Bread teaches believers that they are to use the authority and power of Jesus to remove all the Old Leaven of the Kingdom of Darkness from their lives so that they will become holy unleavened dough.
If the dough offered as firstfruits is holy, so is the whole lump, and if the root is holy, so are the branches. (Romans 11:16 NET)
Now in a wealthy home there are not only gold and silver vessels, but also ones made of wood and of clay, and some are for honorable use, but others for ignoble use. So if someone cleanses himself of such behavior, he will be a vessel for honorable use, set apart, useful for the Master, prepared for every good work. (2 Timothy 2:20–21 NET)
The Feast of Weeks (Pentecost) teaches believers to add the New Leaven of the Kingdom of Heaven, which is faith in Jesus and His word, to their lives, their dough, so that Jesus, the true bread from Heaven, would grow and multiply other Firstfruits unto God our Father.
But each in his own order: Christ the firstfruits, then at his coming those who belong to Christ. (1 Corinthians 15:23 NET)
For we know that the whole creation groans and suffers together until now. Not only this, but we ourselves also, who have the firstfruits of the Spirit, groan inwardly as we eagerly await our adoption, the redemption of our bodies. For in hope we were saved. Now hope that is seen is not hope, because who hopes for what he sees? But if we hope for what we do not see, we eagerly wait for it with endurance. (Romans 8:22–25 NET)
Then Jesus came up and said to them, “All authority in heaven and on earth has been given to me. Therefore go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit,teaching them to obey everything I have commanded you. And remember, I am with you always, to the end of the age.” (Matthew 28:18–20 NET)
And there is salvation in no one else, for there is no other name under heaven given among people by which we must be saved.” (Acts 4:12 NET)
Jesus told parables to explain this New Leaven of the Kingdom of Heaven.
He gave them another parable: “The kingdom of heaven is like a mustard seed that a man took and sowed in his field. It is the smallest of all the seeds, but when it has grown it is the greatest garden plant and becomes a tree, so that the wild birds come and nest in its branches.” (Matthew 13:31–32 NET)
That is, those (a man) that share (sow or hide in the soil) the Word of God (the seed) into the lives of those directed by God (the man’s field), believing that it will grow in the spiritual hearts (the soil) of those that receive it by grace through faith will bring many into the Kingdom of Heaven (birds with nests), thus causing it (the mustard plant) to grow superabundantly (become a large tree).
Again, the man sows (i.e., hides) the seed in the soil with an expectation (i.e., faith) that it would grow, and it did superabundantly! This parable indicates that the Kingdom of Heaven will begin small (a mustard seed) and, through faith, grow into a large kingdom (large healthy tree) ruled by God through faith. Unsaved individuals (wild, non-domesticated birds of the air) discover that the Kingdom of Heaven (tree) provides Shalom (i.e., Peace, Wholeness, and Security), so they choose to become part of the Kingdom of Heaven (nest in its branches) and thus have surrendered and exchanged their wild nature for the nature of Yeshua Hamashiach (i.e., Jesus Messiah or Christ). They are the Christians, the born-again saints of God!
Christians Compared to Birds in the Scriptures
1. Birds delight in the air or in the higher region. Even so, the Christians or saints are said to dwell on high with our thoughts, desires, and affections set on things above. (XVIII)
But our citizenship is in heaven—and we also await a savior from there, the Lord Jesus Christ, (Philippians 3:20 NET)
Therefore, if you have been raised with Christ, keep seeking the things above, where Christ is, seated at the right hand of God. Keep thinking about things above, not things on the earth, (Colossians 3:1–2 NET)
2. Birds mount towards heaven as the eagle.
But those who wait for the Lord’s help find renewed strength; they rise up as if they had eagles’ wings, they run without growing weary, they walk without getting tired. (Isaiah 40:31 NET)
3. Birds want a place of defense and safety when trees are cut down: so when godly leaders fall or are displaced, the saints are exposed to many dangers. (XVIII)
When the righteous rejoice, great is the glory, but when the wicked rise to power, people are sought out. (Proverbs 28:12 NET)
When the wicked gain control, people hide themselves, but when they perish, the righteous increase. (Proverbs 28:28 NET)
4. Some birds are made a prey of by fowls of prey, so have the saints been, and will be by the wicked until this tree is come to its full growth, more or less. (XVIII)
“If the world hates you, be aware that it hated me first. If you belonged to the world, the world would love you as its own. However, because you do not belong to the world, but I chose you out of the world, for this reason the world hates you. (John 15:18–19 NET)
I am not asking you to take them out of the world, but that you keep them safe from the evil one. They do not belong to the world just as I do not belong to the world. Set them apart in the truth; your word is truth. Just as you sent me into the world, so I sent them into the world. (John 17:15–18 NET)
5. Birds make sweet music, sweet melody, especially in the spring: so do the saints sing and make sweet melody in their hearts and voices in the ears of the Lord Jesus Christ, but more abundantly shall they sing when the day of Kingdom of God’s glory is seen in its fullness and the kingdom of this world, Babylon, is annihilated (XVIII)
They were singing a new song: “You are worthy to take the scroll and to open its seals because you were killed, and at the cost of your own blood you have purchased for God persons from every tribe, language, people, and nation. You have appointed them as a kingdom and priests to serve our God, and they will reign on the earth.” (Revelation 5:9–10 NET)
6. Birds suffer much and are almost starved, and many are cut off by hunters in a brutally cold winter’s season. Even so, in times of persecution, the saints have suffered much for lack of bread, their food has been taken away, and many of them have been killed by the hands of wicked and blood-thirsty men. (XVIII)
And others experienced mocking and flogging, and even chains and imprisonment. They were stoned, sawed apart, murdered with the sword; they went about in sheepskins and goatskins; they were destitute, afflicted, ill-treated (the world was not worthy of them); they wandered in deserts and mountains and caves and openings in the earth. (Hebrews 11:36–38 NET)
The time shall come when the saints shall nest or rest in the branches with safety in the Kingdom of God. (cf. Ezekiel 17:22-24) The church shall grow to that strength and power, that the poor and oppressed ones of Jesus Christ shall be secure in the branches of the church authority and government. (XVIII)
And I saw the holy city—the new Jerusalem—descending out of heaven from God, made ready like a bride adorned for her husband. And I heard a loud voice from the throne saying: “Look! The residence of God is among human beings. He will live among them, and they will be his people, and God himself will be with them. He will wipe away every tear from their eyes, and death will not exist any more—or mourning, or crying, or pain, for the former things have ceased to exist.” And the one seated on the throne said: “Look! I am making all things new!” (Revelation 21:2–5 a)
Jesus tells another parable to what the Kingdom of Heaven is like.
He told them another parable: “The kingdom of heaven is like yeast that a woman took and mixed with three measures of flour until all the dough had risen.” (Matthew 13:33 NET)
When Jesus mentioned the woman and the three measures, He was likely thinking back to the first time that was said in the scriptures, and Jesus was there in a pre-incarnate form (i.e., a theophany – “God Appears”)!
The Lord appeared to Abraham by the oaks of Mamre while he was sitting at the entrance to his tent during the hottest time of the day. Abraham looked up and saw three men standing across from him. When he saw them he ran from the entrance of the tent to meet them and bowed low to the ground. He said, “My lord, if I have found favor in your sight, do not pass by and leave your servant. Let a little water be brought so that you may all wash your feet and rest under the tree. And let me get a bit of food so that you may refresh yourselves since you have passed by your servant’s home. After that you may be on your way.” “All right,” they replied, “you may do as you say.” So Abraham hurried into the tent and said to Sarah, “Quick! Take three measures of fine flour, knead it, and make bread.” So Abraham hurried into the tent and said to Sarah, “Quick! Take three measures of fine flour, knead it, and make bread.”Then Abraham ran to the herd and chose a fine, tender calf, and gave it to a servant, who quickly prepared it.Abraham then took some curds and milk, along with the calf that had been prepared, and placed the food before them. They ate while he was standing near them under a tree. Then they asked him, “Where is Sarah your wife?” He replied, “There, in the tent.” One of them said, “I will surely return to you when the season comes round again, and your wife Sarah will have a son!” (Now Sarah was listening at the entrance to the tent, not far behind him. Abraham and Sarah were old and advancing in years; Sarah had long since passed menopause.) So Sarah laughed to herself, thinking, “After I am worn out will I have pleasure, especially when my husband is old too?” The Lord said to Abraham, “Why did Sarah laugh and say, ‘Will I really have a child when I am old?’ Is anything impossible for the Lord? I will return to you when the season comes round again and Sarah will have a son.”Then Sarah lied, saying, “I did not laugh,” because she was afraid. But the Lord said, “No! You did laugh.” (Genesis 18:1–15 NET)
After the meal, the Lord gives Abraham a word of promise that Sarah will have a son. He would be the firstborn son, through faith in God’s Word, from which many sons of faith would be born.
By faith, even though Sarah herself was barren and he was too old, he received the ability to procreate, because he regarded the one who had given the promise to be trustworthy. So in fact children were fathered by one man—and this one as good as dead—like the number of stars in the sky and like the innumerable grains of sand on the seashore. (Hebrews 11:11–12 NET)
Luke’s account of the parable of the “Kingdom of God is like yeast”:
Again he said, “To what should I compare the kingdom of God? It is like yeast that a woman took and mixed with three measures of flour until all the dough had risen.” (Luke 13:20–21 NET)
That is, those (a woman) that share (mix or hide in the dough) the Word of God (the yeast) into the lives of those directed by God (her flour), believing that it will grow in their spiritual hearts (the dough) of those that receive it, by grace through faith, will bring many Jews and Gentiles of the world to join with the Christians (three measures – Jews, Gentiles, and Christians) in the Kingdom of God (one mixture of dough) thus causing it to grow superabundantly (all the dough had risen).
Again, a woman hides (i.e., plants) yeast into the dough with the expectation (i.e., faith) that it would grow, and it did superabundantly! This parable indicates that the Kingdom of Heaven will begin small (yeast) and, through faith, grow into a large kingdom (expanded dough).
He said to them, “Because of your little faith. For truly, I say to you, if you have faith like a grain of mustard seed, you will say to this mountain, ‘Move from here to there,’ and it will move, and nothing will be impossible for you.” (Matthew 17:20 NET)
Connecting the “mustard seed” and the “yeast and flour making dough for bread” parables indicates that the Kingdom of Heaven grows through faith. That is, the Word of God (Jesus the Bread from Heaven) who brings many sons through faith in His word (i.e., the mustard seed and Leaven of Heaven) into His kingdom, thus causing it to rise, expand, or increase!
Your faith and love have arisen from the hope laid up for you in heaven, which you have heard about in the message of truth, the gospel that has come to you. Just as in the entire world this gospel is bearing fruit and growing, so it has also been bearing fruit and growing among you from the first day you heard it and understood the grace of God in truth. (Colossians 1:5–6 NET)
The bread dough was to be mixed with olive oil (1), beaten, pounded into the desired shape, and baked in an oven. If it was an unleavened “cake,” it was to be “mixed with oil”. If it was an “unleavened wafer”, it was to be “anointed” with oil.
Mixed with oil is a picture of Jesus who was born without sin and full of the Holy Spirit. Jesus was “anointed with oil,” upon coming up out of the waters after being baptized by John. At that time, The Holy Spirit rested ON HIM (poured over Him as oil) without measure.
You love justice and hate evil. For this reason God, your God has anointed you with the oil of joy, elevating you above your companions. (Psalm 45:7 NET)
You have loved righteousness and hated lawlessness. So God, your God, has anointed you over your companions with the oil of rejoicing.” (Hebrews 1:9 NET)
And the disciples were filled with joy and with the Holy Spirit. (Acts 13:52 NET)
Frankincense is used for incense and perfume as it has a sweet smell. Paul alludes to a fragrant offering figuratively in the New Covenant.
For I have received everything, and I have plenty. I have all I need because I received from Epaphroditus what you sent—a fragrant offering, an acceptable sacrifice, very pleasing to God. And my God will supply your every need according to his glorious riches in Christ Jesus. May glory be given to God our Father forever and ever. Amen. (Philippians 4:18–20 NET)
Frankincense is tapped from the scraggly but hardy trees by slashing the bark, which is called striping, and allowing the exuded resin to bleed out and harden. These hardened resins are called Frankincense tears.
This depicts the horrendous torture He suffered by slashings and stripes from the whippings and beatings before He suffered the most disgraceful death of crucifixion. Furthermore, it represents what Jesus is doing for us in the present role as our Great High Priest and Covenant Mediator.
Therefore since we have a great high priest who has passed through the heavens, Jesus the Son of God, let us hold fast to our confession. For we do not have a high priest incapable of sympathizing with our weaknesses, but one who has been tempted in every way just as we are, yet without sin. Therefore let us confidently approach the throne of grace to receive mercy and find grace whenever we need help. (Hebrews 4:14–16 NET)
Moreover, you must season every one of your grain offerings with salt; you must not allow the salt of the covenant of your God to be missing from your grain offering—on every one of your grain offerings you must present salt. (Leviticus 2:13 NET)
All grain offering were required to have salt added to them.
According to the Babylonian Talmud the salt used in the service of the temple must come from Sodom (the Dead Sea area):
III:2: Nor shall you allow salt to be lacking:” Since the word for “be lacking” uses the same consonants as those in the word Sabbath, the meaning is: produce salt that has no Sabbath but is produced winter and summer, and what is that? It is salt from Sodom. (XIV)
Since salt was regarded in the ancient Near East as not being destructible by fire, “a covenant of salt” seems to refer to an eternal covenant (Numbers 18:19; 2 Chronicles 13:5) (XIII)
Salt has the following characteristics:
Salt Preserves – many of the disciples Jesus called were fishermen and were well aware of the ability of salt to preserve caught fish and thus keep them from spoiling.
As he went along the Sea of Galilee, he saw Simon and Andrew, Simon’s brother, casting a net into the sea (for they were fishermen). Jesus said to them, “Follow me, and I will turn you into fishers of people.”They left their nets immediately and followed him. Going on a little farther, he saw James, the son of Zebedee, and John his brother in their boat mending nets. Immediately he called them, and they left their father Zebedee in the boat with the hired men and followed him. (Mark 1:16–20 NET)
Salt stands for permanence and incorruptibility. Thus when salt is used in a “covenant of salt,” it always signifies an everlasting covenant, with the salt being an emblem or symbol of perpetuity. The use of salt in an offering would therefore signify the everlasting relation between God and His people—they everlastingly belong to Him, and He everlastingly belongs to them. For this reason, salt and permanence were always associated in a covenant; 2 Chronicles 13:5 states: “Don’t you know that the LORD, the God of Israel, has given the kingship of Israel to David and his descendants forever by a covenant of salt?” (XV)
Salt Flavors – salt is added to food to bring out its flavor. Salt can turn bland food into savory!
Can food that is tasteless be eaten without salt? Or is there any taste in the white of an egg? (Job 6:6 NET)
Salt Heals – in Biblical times salt was rubbed on newborn babies due to salt’s antiseptic properties.
The men of the city said to Elisha, “Look, the city has a good location, as our master can see. But the water is bad and the land doesn’t produce crops.”Elisha said, “Get me a new jar and put some salt in it.” So they got it. He went out to the spring and threw the salt in. Then he said, “This is what the Lord says, ‘I have purified this water. It will no longer cause death or fail to produce crops.”The water has been pure to this very day, just as Elisha prophesied. (2 Kings 2:19–22 NET)
Salt Penetrates – a small amount of salt in a bottle of water will be nearly instantly salty throughout.
Salt represented the permanence of the covenant that the Israelites had just entered into with the Lord (Exod. 20–24). By requiring the Israelites to add salt to their offerings, the Lord provided a way for them constantly to affirm their covenant relationship with him. This affirmation would have greatly encouraged the people, by reminding them of the Lord’s steadfast commitment to be their covenant King. They especially needed this encouragement as they prepared to enter the Promised Land and establish God’s kingdom there. Only the presence of their covenant King in their midst could give them confidence in the success of their mission. (It is no different for the Christian today; this is no doubt why Jesus assures us of his presence when giving us our covenant mission; Matt. 28:18–20.) As well as being an encouragement, the requirement of the salt of the covenant served to remind the Israelites of their covenant obligations. The Lord had chosen them to be ‘a kingdom of priests and a holy nation’ (Exod. 19:6), and the covenant laws he had given them had to be followed in order to show to the nations the Lord’s wisdom, righteousness and holiness (1) (Lev. 20:24b–26; Deut. 4:5–8). (III)
Jesus picks up on the same principle when he tells his disciples, ‘In the same way, let your light shine before others, that they may see your good deeds and glorify your Father in heaven’ (Matthew. 5:16). To follow the King’s commands is to reflect the King’s character. Believers are to do this in such a radical way that people end up knowing the King’s character by seeing how his servants live. (III)
Let your speech always be gracious, seasoned with salt, so that you may know how you should answer everyone. (Colossians 4:6 NET)
Therefore, having laid aside falsehood, each one of you speak the truth with his neighbor, for we are members of one another. (Ephesians 4:25 NET)
Salt is good, but if it loses its saltiness, how can you make it salty again? Have salt in yourselves, and be at peace with each other.” (Mark 9:50 NET)
Furthermore, Jesus equates being “salted with fire” with the growth in the fruit of the Spirit resulting from effectively suffering (1) for the Gospel’s sake.
Everyone will be salted with fire.(Mark 9:49 NET)
Dear friends, do not be astonished that a trial by fire is occurring among you, as though something strange were happening to you. But rejoice in the degree that you have shared in the sufferings of Christ, so that when his glory is revealed you may also rejoice and be glad. If you are insulted for the name of Christ, you are blessed, because the Spirit of glory, who is the Spirit of God, rests on you. But let none of you suffer as a murderer or thief or criminal or as a troublemaker. (1 Peter 4:12–15 NET)
Waving or Elevating (Heaving)
“Waving or elevating the offering apparently had several purposes. In most cases, and always when animal meat and fat constituted the sacrifice, the ritual marked a change in ownership of the sacrifice from the offerer to God, and its consecration for the presiding priest’s meal (Leviticus 7:24–36). (VIII) (X)
Major sacrifices such as the purification, holocaust, burnt, and “sin” offerings were not elevated because they already belonged to Yahweh. Moreover, the priest lifted only those parts of the carcass that he would eat (the breast and right shank), not the parts returning to the worshipper. (VIII) (X)
Exceptions to these conditions exist in the grain offerings in Leviticus 23; Numbers 5:15 [i.e., the grain offering of suspicion], all of which depart from the norm by being of barley rather than wheat and by lacking oil and incense. Also dissimilar is the offering for the person with scale disease, which cannot be paid in silver, unlike reparation offerings in other contexts.(VIII) (X)
The elevation offering could occur at various points of the ritual cycle: with grain offerings at the beginning (Leviticus 23:15) and with meat and mixed offerings in the middle (Exodus 29:23–26; Numbers 5:25; Leviticus 14:12) or at the end (Exodus 29:27–28; Lev. 9:21) of the ceremony. Notably, the elevation offering marks the transition to the ritual exit (through blessing) in the inaugural service of the priest (Leviticus 9:21), perhaps to signify his new right to preside at all sacrifices. The elevation of the offering thus marked important transitions in the ritual, especially prior to its climax.” (VIII) (X)
Hebrew “terumah” (Exodus 29:27) means simply an offering, a present, including all the offerings made by the Israelites as a present. This Hebrew word is frequently employed. Some of the rabbis attach to the word the meaning of elevation and refer it to the heave offering, which consisted in presenting the offering by a [single] motion up and [then] down, distinguished from the wave offering, which consisted in a repeated movement in a horizontal direction, a “wave offering to the Lord as ruler of the earth, a heave offering to the Lord as ruler of heaven.” The right shoulder, which fell to the priests in presenting thank offerings, was called the heave shoulder (Leviticus 7:34; Numbers 6:20). (I)
“The parts assigned to the priest constituted the wave-offering (“terumah”; Ex. 29:24, 26), and were waved backward and forward in a line with the altar. According to Orelli, this movement was a symbolical expression of the reciprocity of the giving and receiving on the part of God and the sacrificer (Herzog-Hauck, “Real-Enyc.” 1904, 14:392). They were waved toward the four sides of the world (see Rashi on Ex. 2:9; Baḥya on Lev. 8; and Levi ben Gershon on Lev. 3.). The wave-offering symbolized that the person dedicated himself to God, who dwells as much above as among His people (Hoff, “Die Mosaischen Opfer,” p. 23, Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1857). Kurtz suggests that the offering was waved vertically as well as toward the four quarters of the world.” (IX)
“To wave an offering is to swing, sway, or move to and fro while physically presenting something in worship to the Resurrection and the Life through this action.” (II) “The wave offering was waved, not from right to left, but back and forth toward the altar and the priest, symbolizing that the offering was being given to God.” (VII)
While there is some disagreement on the waving or heaving terminology, the act of Waving or Heaving back and forth portrays the death, burial, and resurrection of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ in the Old Covenant. In the New Covenant, we have reminders in the water Baptism (1) and the Lord’s Supper (1) (i.e., Eucharist or Communion). The Waving to the four corners of the World (North, East, West, South) represents that Jesus died for everyone, everywhere, and at every time since the fall of man on Earth! Now that is Good NEWS! Hallelujah!
Having been buried with him in baptism, you also have been raised with him through your faith in the power of God who raised him from the dead. And even though you were dead in your transgressions and in the uncircumcision of your flesh, he nevertheless made you alive with him, having forgiven all your transgressions. He has destroyed what was against us, a certificate of indebtedness expressed in decrees opposed to us. He has taken it away by nailing it to the cross. Disarming the rulers and authorities, he has made a public disgrace of them, triumphing over them by the cross. (Colossians 2:12–15 NET)
For I received from the Lord what I also passed on to you, that the Lord Jesus on the night in which he was betrayed took bread, and after he had given thanks he broke it and said, "This is my body, which is for you. Do this in remembrance of me." In the same way, he also took the cup after supper, saying, "This cup is the new covenant in my blood. Do this, every time you drink it, in remembrance of me." For every time you eat this bread and drink the cup, you proclaim the Lord's death until he comes. (1 Corinthians 11:23-26 NET)
“ ‘No grain offering which you present to the Lord can be made with yeast, for you must not offer up in smoke any yeast or honey as a gift to the Lord. You can present them to the Lord as an offering of first fruit, but they must not go up to the altar for a soothing aroma. (Leviticus 2:11–12 NET)
It is believed that the reason honey was forbidden in offerings by fire was that it ferments under certain conditions. For this reason, honey is associated with corruption. (XV)
Honey was forbidden from use in fire offerings; however, it was permitted in Firstfruits offerings (these were not offered by fire) given to the priests for their services.
Sacrifices and Offerings of the Old Covenant
- The Five Fire Sacrifices and Offerings of Israel – Introduction
- The Five Fire Sacrifices and Offerings of Israel – The Burnt Offering
- The Five Fire Sacrifices and Offerings of Israel – The Meal Offering
- The Five Fire Sacrifices and Offerings of Israel – The Peace Offering
- The Five Fire Sacrifices and Offerings of Israel – The Sin Offering
- The Five Fire Sacrifices and Offerings of Israel – The Trespass Offering
(1) Left-click on the underlined phrase to open another article in a different tab with more explanation.
(2) This article has been primarily adapted from: Fruchtenbaum, A. G. (1983). The Messianic Bible Study Collection (Vol. 180, p. 16). Tustin, CA: Ariel Ministries.
(3) Wenham, G. J. (1981). Numbers: an introduction and commentary (Vol. 4, p. 220). Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.
(4) The male animal represents this sacrifice is for God’s benefit. Recall, Adam, a male, was made for God’s benefit.
“It follows that I show for what purpose God made man himself. As He contrived the world for the sake of man, so He formed man himself on His own account, as it were a priest of a divine temple, a spectator of His works and of heavenly objects. For he is the only being who, since he is intelligent and capable of reason, is able to understand God, to admire His works, and perceive His energy and power; for on this account he is furnished with judgment, intelligence, and prudence. On this account he alone, beyond the other living creatures, has been made with an upright body and attitude, so that he seems to have been raised up for the contemplation of his Parent. On this account he alone has received language, and a tongue the interpreter of his thought, that he may be able to declare the majesty of his Lord. Lastly, for this cause all things were placed under his control, that he himself might be under the control of God, their Maker and Creator. If God, therefore, designed man to be a worshipper of Himself, and on this account gave him so much honour, that he might rule over all things; it is plainly most just that he should worship Him who bestowed upon him such great gifts, and love man, who is united with us in the participation of the divine justice.”
Lactantius. (1886). A Treatise on the Anger of God. In A. Roberts, J. Donaldson, & A. C. Coxe (Eds.), W. Fletcher (Trans.), Fathers of the Third and Fourth Centuries: Lactantius, Venantius, Asterius, Victorinus, Dionysius, Apostolic Teaching and Constitutions, Homily, and Liturgies (Vol. 7, p. 271). Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Company.
Eve, a female, was made for the man Adam’s benefit and hence when female animals are prescribed in sacrifices then it is for mankind’s benefit.
The Lord God said, “It is not good for the man to be alone. I will make a companion for him who corresponds to him.” (Genesis 2:18 NET)
(5) McCune, R. (2009). A Systematic Theology of Biblical Christianity: The Doctrines of Man, Sin, Christ, and the Holy Spirit (Vol. 2, p. 193). Allen Park, MI: Detroit Baptist Theological Seminary.
(6) Intentionally Blank
(7) Easton, M. G. (1893). In Easton’s Bible dictionary. New York: Harper & Brothers.
(8) Hamilton, M. W. (2000). Elevation Offering. In D. N. Freedman, A. C. Myers, & A. B. Beck (Eds.), Eerdmans dictionary of the Bible (p. 392). Grand Rapids, MI: W.B. Eerdmans.
(9) Deane, W. J. (1889). Samuel and Saul: Their Lives and Times (pp. 21–22). New York: Anson D. F. Randolph & Company.
(10) Freeman, J. M., & Chadwick, H. J. (1998). Manners & customs of the Bible (p. 148). North Brunswick, NJ: Bridge-Logos Publishers.
(I) Neusner, J. (1988). The Mishnah : A new translation (p. 742). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
(II) Malda, B. D. (Ed.). (2015). Come and Worship: Ways to Worship from the Hebrew Scriptures (p. 62). Clarksville, MD: Lederer Books: a division of Messianic Jewish Publishers.
(III) Sklar, J. (2013). Leviticus: An Introduction and Commentary. (D. G. Firth, Ed.) (Vol. 3, p. 101). Nottingham, England: Inter-Varsity Press.
(IV) Masterman, E. W. G. (1915). Barley. In J. Orr, J. L. Nuelsen, E. Y. Mullins, & M. O. Evans (Eds.), The International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia (Vol. 1–5, p. 405). Chicago: The Howard-Severance Company.
(V) Balfour, J. H. (1885). The Plants of the Bible (p. 212). London; Edinburgh; New York: T. Nelson and Sons.
(VI) Eisenberg, R. L. (2004). The JPS guide to Jewish traditions (1st ed., p. 670). Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society.
(VII) Hannah, J. D. (1985). Exodus. In J. F. Walvoord & R. B. Zuck (Eds.), The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures (Vol. 1, p. 153). Wheaton, IL: Victor Books.
(VIII) Easton, M. G. (1893). In Easton’s Bible dictionary. New York: Harper & Brothers.
(IX) Singer, I. (Ed.). (1901–1906). In The Jewish Encyclopedia: A Descriptive Record of the History, Religion, Literature, and Customs of the Jewish People from the Earliest Times to the Present Day, 12 Volumes (Vol. 9, p. 568). New York; London: Funk & Wagnalls.
(X) Hamilton, M. W. (2000). Elevation Offering. In D. N. Freedman, A. C. Myers, & A. B. Beck (Eds.), Eerdmans dictionary of the Bible (p. 392). Grand Rapids, MI: W.B. Eerdmans.
(XI) (2016). The Lexham Figurative Language of the New Testament Dataset. In J. R. Westbury, J. Thompson, K. A. Lyle, & J. Parks (Eds.), Lexham Figurative Language of the Bible Glossary. Bellingham, WA: Lexham Press.
(XII) Larson, K. (2000). I & II Thessalonians, I & II Timothy, Titus, Philemon (Vol. 9, p. 331). Nashville, TN: Broadman & Holman Publishers.
(XIII) Lindsey, F. D. (1985). Leviticus. In J. F. Walvoord & R. B. Zuck (Eds.), The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures (Vol. 1, p. 177). Wheaton, IL: Victor Books.
(XIV) Neusner, J. (2011). The Babylonian Talmud: A Translation and Commentary (Vol. 19, p. 617). Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers.
(XV) Freeman, J. M., & Chadwick, H. J. (1998). Manners & customs of the Bible (p. 143). North Brunswick, NJ: Bridge-Logos Publishers.
(XVI) Wuest, K. S. (1961). The New Testament: an expanded translation (1 Co 5:6–8). Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.
(XVII) Thompson, J. A. (1974). Deuteronomy: An Introduction and Commentary (Vol. 5, p. 147). Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.
(XVIII) Keach, B. (1858). An Exposition of the Parables and Express Similitudes of Our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ (pp. 239–240). London: Aylott and Co.