The Old Covenant Book of Leviticus outlines five special Levitical fire offerings and sacrifices. The Burnt Offering is for the sanctification of the whole man in self-surrender to the Lord even unto death. The Meal Offering is the fruit of that sanctification. The Peace Offering is the blossoming of the possession and enjoyment of saving grace. The Sin Offering is for making amends for sin. The Trespass Offering was for the restoration of rights that had been violated.
“The New Testament views all the old covenant sacrifices as types of the death of Christ. The different sacrifices bring out different aspects of the significance of his death. Lambs sacrificed every morning and evening were the most typical victim, so Jesus is called ‘the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world’ (John 1:29). Indeed he died at the time of the evening sacrifice.” (3)
The “Whole” Burnt Offering (Leviticus 1:3-17)
While the Burnt Offering is the first of the Levitical offerings it is the oldest, and most common, of the offerings, found as early as the Book of Genesis. This was an offering with the worshipper voluntarily devoting his whole offering to God through the fire (Exodus 29:18). The Burnt Offering, olah in the Hebrew, literally meaning “to go up.” That is, the whole offering “went up in smoke”, providing a sweet-smelling aroma to the Lord, with nothing returned to the worshipper which made the Burnt Offering distinct from other offerings. Parts of the other sacrifices were also burned on the Altar, but the Burnt Offering was totally consumed on the fire except for the hide of the animal and the crop of the bird. Otherwise, everything was totally burned to ashes with nothing left for anyone to eat.
The burnt offering was the only offering that was entirely burned. Thus it is sometimes called the “whole” burnt offering (Deuteronomy 33:10; Psalm 51:19). The burning was to be so gradual that it should last from morning to evening, or from one daily sacrifice to the next. It was commanded that the fire on the altar should never go out. The emphasis, however, was not on the fire, but on the continual burnt offering, which symbolized the consecration of the nation unto God. (7)
Noah built an altar to the Lord. He then took some of every kind of clean animal and clean bird and offered burnt offerings on the altar. And the Lord smelled the soothing aroma and said to himself, “I will never again curse the ground because of humankind, even though the inclination of their minds is evil from childhood on. I will never again destroy everything that lives, as I have just done. “While the earth continues to exist, planting time and harvest, cold and heat, summer and winter, and day and night will not cease.” (Genesis 8:20–22 NET)
‘You must make for me an altar made of earth, and you will sacrifice on it your burnt offerings and your peace offerings, your sheep and your cattle. In every place where I cause my name to be honored I will come to you and I will bless you. (Exodus 20:24 NET)
The purpose was to express total dedication to God (i.e., it was a consecration offering). (Exodus 18:11–12; Numbers 15:3). This was especially its meaning under the Mosaic Covenant. The Burnt Offering is sometimes referred to merely as “an offering made by fire.” In Deuteronomy 33:10, it is called in Hebrew kalil, the whole burnt offering. In actual practice, it was often preceded by a Sin Offering (1) or a Trespass Offering (1) (Leviticus 6:8–7:38).
The Burnt Offering is mentioned within the New Covenant in Mark 12:33 and Hebrews 10:6-8. But implicitly, it is found in Luke 2:23,24, which mentions that a Burnt Offering was required after childbearing. It is also implicit in Luke 17:14 when the healing of a leper apparently required a Burnt Offering.
The Burnt Offering was voluntary at the individual level for private practice, but it was mandatory for the following specific public occasions:
- daily sacrifice every morning and evening,
- weekly sacrifice on the Sabbath,
- monthly sacrifice for the first day of the month or the New Moon Offering,
- seasonally for the seven Holy Seasons or Feasts of Israel (1),
- annually for special annual offerings.
When the Burnt Sacrifice was offered the Priests and Levites accompanied it with joyful singing and the playing of musical instruments used for praising the Lord (e.g., stringed instruments, tambourines, trumpets, and cymbals) (1 Chronicles 13:8;25:1). They played their instruments and sang while standing on the East side of the Altar (2 Chronicles 5:12-14).
Jehoiada then assigned the duties of the Lord’s temple to the priests, the Levites whom David had assigned to the Lord’s temple. They were responsible for offering burnt sacrifices to the Lord with joy and music, according to the law of Moses and the edict of David. (2 Chronicles 23:18 NET)
The king and all the people were presenting sacrifices to the Lord. King Solomon sacrificed 22,000 cattle and 120,000 sheep. Then the king and all the people dedicated God’s temple. The priests stood in their assigned spots, along with the Levites who had the musical instruments used for praising the Lord. (These were the ones King David made for giving thanks to the Lord and which were used by David when he offered praise, saying, “Certainly his loyal love endures.”) Opposite the Levites, the priests were blowing the trumpets, while all Israel stood there. (2 Chronicles 7:4–6 NET)
There was a division of labor between the worshipper and the priest. The labor for the worshipper involved five things. He had to:
- bring the animal,
- kill the animal,
- skin the animal,
- gut the animal, and
- butcher the animal. (2)
Meanwhile, the priest had to do three things. He had to:
- prepare wood for the fire,
- sprinkle blood on the Altar, and
- place the dismembered animal’s body on the fire. (2)
The animal to be sacrificed had to have the following four general characteristics. The animal had to be:
- ceremonially clean,
- utilitarian, meaning “usable for food” or sustenance,
- domesticated (i.e., those that obeyed their master’s will and more or less endeared to the offerer; although some wild game animals were permissible for food, no game animal was permissible for sacrifice with the exception of the young Pigeon since the very poor could capture these with their hands), and
- costly; the selection of the animal was based upon the social-economic status of the individual Jewish member of the commonwealth.
If the individual were wealthy, he had to offer an expensive sacrifice; if he were poor, he could offer a less expensive sacrifice, nevertheless, it would have to be costly relative to his social-economic status. As Moses deals with the specific animals allowed, the progression always goes from the most expensive to the least expensive as follows:
- Turtledove (Adult bird only)
- Pigeon (Young bird only)
The kinds of animals for the Burnt Offering and the details as to how they were offered closely parallel the Peace Offering.
In addition, the animal to be sacrificed had to meet the following three criteria:
- Condition – perfect without spot, blemish, disease, or deformity, (cf. Malachi 1:8 NET)
- Gender – Male, except for birds which can be either male or female (4), and
- Age – generally, the animal had to be one year old (e.g., a lamb at the peak of life and health). (5) Sometimes it could be as young as eight days old (Leviticus 22:27) or as old as three years. (2) Birds had to be adult Turtledoves or young Pigeons (2)
There were thirteen sequential steps of the Burned Offering ritual:
- the worshipper brought the animal to the entrance of the Tabernacle and stood near the Northside of the Altar (Leviticus 1:3),
- the worshipper would lay his hands on the head of the animal (this was done if the animal came from the herd, but not if the animal came from a flock of birds) (Leviticus 1:4), (This represented that the worshipper understood he deserved the death that the animal was soon to suffer in his place.)
- the priest would declare if the animal was acceptable (Leviticus 1:4), (Note the priest would examine the animal, not the person since we have all sinned (Romans 3:23). That is, inspection is all about the Holiness and purity of the sacrifice, not the worshipper)
- the worshipper would kill the animal (except for the bird which was killed by the priest) (Leviticus 1:5),
- the priest would sprinkle the blood against the Altar, on all four insides (Leviticus 1:5),
- the worshipper would skin and butcher the animal (Leviticus 1:6),
- the priest would put wood on the fire in the altar and arrange the head and the fat on this wood (Leviticus 1:7,8)
- the worshipper would wash the intestines (thus removing the dung) and legs with water (Leviticus 1:9),
- the priest would then place the entire animal on the altar and burn it to ashes providing a sweet-smelling aroma to God (Leviticus 1:9), and
- the priest would then keep the animal skin or hide. (2)
- the evening (approximately 3:00 P.M.) burnt offering remained on the hearth all night until morning with a fire that was never to be extinguished. At dawn, a priest would put on his white linen robe and underwear (to prevent sweating while working near the burning altar (Ezekial 44:18)), rake out the remaining fatty ashes of the sacrifice, and place them on the altar’s east side (i.e., a location the farthest away and out of the line of sight of the sanctuary). (Leviticus 1:16;6:9,10)
- this priest would next change from the linen clothes to other garments and would transport the fatty ash from the pile on the east side of the altar to the fatty ash pile outside the camp, a ceremonially clean place. This fatty ash pile was located in the Kidron Valley once the temple was built in Jerusalem. (Leviticus 4:12; 6:11) (9)
- a priest would place more wood, from the wood offering (Nehemiah 10:34;13:31), on the altar so that the fire would burn continuously. A priest would then offer up the daily burnt offering at approximately 9:00 A.M. (Leviticus 6:12,13. Exodus 29:39-41. Numbers 28:1-8)
The sacrifices are arranged according to their frequency: first, come the daily burnt offerings (Numbers 28:2–8); second, the weekly sabbath offering (Numbers 28:9–10); third, the monthly offerings (Numbers 28:11–15); finally, the once-yearly offerings arranged in chronological sequence (Numbers 28:16–29:38). (3)
The daily sacrifices consisted of two burnt offerings: one lamb … in the morning [9:00 AM], the other lamb … in the evening [3:00 PM] (Numbers 28:4,8). This last phrase, in the evening, literally ‘between the evenings’ or twilight. (3)
Some Rabbis considered twilight to be when the sun sets until the appearance of three stars. The three stars had to be not so large as to be visible in the daylight but also not so small that they would be invisible until late at night. (8)
On Sabbaths and festivals, when additional sacrifices were appointed, they were offered in the time between the regular morning and evening sacrifices. Numbers 28:23 suggests they were presented immediately after the morning sacrifice. (3)
A sin offering (1) of a goat was required on all festivals apart from the sabbath, and this would probably have been offered before the additional burnt offerings (cf. Numbers 6:16; Leviticus 9; 16, etc.). Note that Numbers 28–29 is concerned with the quantity of the sacrifices, not their timing. (3)
The Passover sacrifices were also initially slain “in the evening” or twilight (cf. Numbers 9:3. Leviticus 23:5) until the temple was built and then offered at approximately 3:00 P.M . (3)(6)
It should also be noted in the “Sacrifices and Offerings of the Old Covenant” table immediately above that the number of sacrifices is cumulative. Thus on the sabbath, both the daily sacrifice of two lambs and the sabbath sacrifice of two lambs were offered (Numbers 28:10). On the first day of the seventh month, the daily sacrifice of two lambs, the usual first-day sacrifice of two bulls, one ram, seven lambs, and the special first-of-the-seventh-month sacrifice of one bull, one ram, and seven lambs were offered. Every burnt offering had to be accompanied by the appropriate cereal and libation offerings: a bull by a cereal offering made with three-tenths of an ephah of flour and ½ hin of oil, a ram by one made of two-tenths of an ephah of flour and a third hin of oil, a lamb by one-tenth ephah of flour and 1/4 hin of oil. The corresponding drink offerings of wine were a half, a third and a quarter hin (Numbers 28:12–14; cf. Numbers 15:4–10).
Consequently, every year the priests sacrificed a minimum of 113 bulls, 32 rams, and 1086 lambs and offered more than a ton of flour and a thousand bottles of oil and wine! (3)
For the law possesses a shadow of the good things to come but not the reality itself, and is therefore completely unable, by the same sacrifices offered continually, year after year, to perfect those who come to worship. For otherwise would they not have ceased to be offered, since the worshipers would have been purified once for all and so have no further consciousness of sin? But in those sacrifices there is a reminder of sins year after year. For the blood of bulls and goats cannot take away sins. (Hebrews 10:1-4 NET)
Imagine, never a day without the death of animals dying in our place. A constant reminder of sins that could never be taken away by animals but could only be temporarily covered.
Typological Meaning of the Burnt Offering
Jesus the Messiah willingly offered Himself to God as a consecration offering dying in our place. Jesus performed this while satisfying all of the Levitical requirements for the burnt offering sacrifice.
I can do nothing on my own initiative. Just as I hear, I judge, and my judgment is just, because I do not seek my own will, but the will of the one who sent me. (John 5:30 NET)
For I have come down from heaven not to do my own will but the will of the one who sent me. Now this is the will of the one who sent me—that I should not lose one person of every one he has given me, but raise them all up at the last day. For this is the will of my Father—for everyone who looks on the Son and believes in him to have eternal life, and I will raise him up at the last day.” (John 6:38–40 NET)
Going a little farther, he threw himself down with his face to the ground and prayed, “My Father, if possible, let this cup pass from me! Yet not what I will, but what you will.” (Matthew 26:39 NET)
As a substitute, Jesus the Messiah is the ideal of consecrated service, for His will was always in complete submission to the Father’s. Thus he was an Offering of a “sweet-smelling savor,” such as was the Burnt Offering. Of Him, the Father could say, “This is my beloved son in whom I am well pleased.”
Now in those days Jesus came from Nazareth in Galilee and was baptized by John in the Jordan River. And just as Jesus was coming up out of the water, he saw the heavens splitting apart and the Spirit descending on him like a dove. And a voice came from heaven: “You are my one dear Son; in you I take great delight.” (Mark 1:9–11 NET)
Six days later Jesus took with him Peter, James, and John the brother of James, and led them privately up a high mountain. And he was transfigured before them. His face shone like the sun, and his clothes became white as light. Then Moses and Elijah also appeared before them, talking with him. So Peter said to Jesus, “Lord, it is good for us to be here. If you want, I will make three shelters—one for you, one for Moses, and one for Elijah.” While he was still speaking, a bright cloud overshadowed them, and a voice from the cloud said, “This is my one dear Son, in whom I take great delight. Listen to him!” (Matthew 17:1–5 NET)
Furthermore, Jesus the Messiah demonstrated what God our Father desires of us His children. That is, to present ourselves as a living sacrifice. By accepting Him as our “Burnt Offering” we identify ourselves with Him and confess that He died as our substitute.
Therefore I exhort you, brothers and sisters, by the mercies of God, to present your bodies as a sacrifice—alive, holy, and pleasing to God—which is your reasonable service. (Romans 12:1 NET)
Therefore, be imitators of God as dearly loved children and live in love, just as Christ also loved us and gave himself for us, a sacrificial and fragrant offering to God. (Ephesians 5:1–2 NET)
Four General Characteristics of the Sacrifice that were Met by Jesus:
Jesus was, is, and ever shall be Ceremonially Clean
Jesus committed no sin, had no sin within Himself, and never knew sin; therefore, He qualified to be our sacrificial offering.
He committed no sin nor was deceit found in his mouth. (1 Peter 2:22 NET)
And you know that Jesus was revealed to take away sins, and in him there is no sin. (1 John 3:5 NET)
God made the one who did not know sin to be sin for us, so that in him we would become the righteousness of God. (2 Corinthians 5:21)
Jesus was, is, and ever shall be our Sustenance
Jesus said to them, “I am the bread of life. The one who comes to me will never go hungry, and the one who believes in me will never be thirsty. (John 6:35 NET)
I am the bread of life. Your ancestors ate the manna in the wilderness, and they died. This is the bread that has come down from heaven, so that a person may eat from it and not die. I am the living bread that came down from heaven. If anyone eats from this bread he will live forever. The bread that I will give for the life of the world is my flesh.” (John 6:48–51 NET)
Jesus said to them, “I tell you the solemn truth, unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink his blood, you have no life in yourselves. The one who eats my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up on the last day. For my flesh is true food, and my blood is true drink. The one who eats my flesh and drinks my blood resides in me, and I in him. Just as the living Father sent me, and I live because of the Father, so the one who consumes me will live because of me. This is the bread that came down from heaven; it is not like the bread your ancestors ate, but then later died. The one who eats this bread will live forever.” (John 6:53–58 NET)
While they were eating, Jesus took bread, and after giving thanks he broke it, gave it to his disciples, and said, “Take, eat, this is my body.” And after taking the cup and giving thanks, he gave it to them, saying, “Drink from it, all of you, for this is my blood, the blood of the covenant, that is poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins. (Matthew 26:26–28 NET)
Jesus was, is, and ever shall be Obedient to God His and our Heavenly Father
I will sing praises to God’s name! I will magnify him as I give him thanks! That will please the Lord more than an ox or a bull with horns and hooves. (Psalm 69:30–31 NET)
Receiving sacrifices and offerings are not your primary concern. You make that quite clear to me! You do not ask for burnt sacrifices and sin offerings. Then I say, “Look! I come! What is written in the scroll pertains to me. I want to do what pleases you, my God. Your law dominates my thoughts.” (Psalm 40:6–8 NET)
So when he came into the world, he said, “Sacrifice and offering you did not desire, but a body you prepared for me. “Whole burnt offerings and sin-offerings you took no delight in. “Then I said, ‘Here I am: I have come—it is written of me in the scroll of the book—to do your will, O God.’ ” (Hebrews 10:5-7 NET)
He was treated harshly and afflicted, but he did not even open his mouth. Like a lamb led to the slaughtering block, like a sheep silent before her shearers, he did not even open his mouth. (Isaiah 53:7 NET)
So Jesus answered them, “I tell you the solemn truth, the Son can do nothing on his own initiative, but only what he sees the Father doing. For whatever the Father does, the Son does likewise. (John 5:19 NET)
but I am doing just what the Father commanded me, so that the world may know that I love the Father. Get up, let us go from here.” (John 14:31 NET)
For I have not spoken from my own authority, but the Father himself who sent me has commanded me what I should say and what I should speak. (John 12:49 NET)
Do you not believe that I am in the Father, and the Father is in me? The words that I say to you, I do not speak on my own initiative, but the Father residing in me performs his miraculous deeds. Believe me that I am in the Father, and the Father is in me, but if you do not believe me, believe because of the miraculous deeds themselves. (John 14:10–11 NET)
Jesus was, is, and ever shall be Precious and Priceless to God the Father
For this is the way God loved the world: He gave his one and only Son, so that everyone who believes in him will not perish but have eternal life. For God did not send his Son into the world to condemn the world, but that the world should be saved through him. The one who believes in him is not condemned. The one who does not believe has been condemned already, because he has not believed in the name of the one and only Son of God. (John 3:16–18 NET)
After Jesus was baptized, just as he was coming up out of the water, the heavens opened and he saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove and coming on him. And a voice from heaven said, “This is my one dear Son; in him I take great delight.” (Matthew 3:16–17 NET)
Three Criteria of the Sacrifice that were Met by Jesus:
Jesus was, is, and ever shall be perfect without spot, blemish, disease, or deformity
And Jesus increased in wisdom and in stature, and in favor with God and with people. (Luke 2:52 NET)
For if the blood of goats and bulls and the ashes of a young cow sprinkled on those who are defiled consecrated them and provided ritual purity, how much more will the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without blemish to God, purify our consciences from dead works to worship the living God. (Hebrews 9:13–14 NET)
You know that from your empty way of life inherited from your ancestors you were ransomed—not by perishable things like silver or gold, but by precious blood like that of an unblemished and spotless lamb, namely Christ. (1 Peter 1:18–19 NET)
Jesus was, is, and ever shall be a Human Male
“Look! The virgin will conceive and bear a son, and they will call him Emmanuel,” which means “God with us. ”When Joseph awoke from sleep he did what the angel of the Lord told him. He took his wife, but did not have marital relations with her until she gave birth to a son, whom he named Jesus. (Matthew 1:23–25 NET)
Jesus was, is, and ever shall be at the Peak of Life and Health
So when Joseph and Mary had performed everything according to the law of the Lord, they returned to Galilee, to their own town of Nazareth. And the child grew and became strong, filled with wisdom, and the favor of God was upon him. (Luke 2:39–40 NET)
So Jesus, when he began his ministry, was about thirty years old. He was the son (as was supposed) of Joseph, the son of Heli, (Luke 3:23 NET)
A bronze altar (1) with four sides and four integral bronze horns.
You are to make its four horns on its four corners; its horns will be part of it, and you are to overlay it with bronze. (Exodus 27:2 NET)
A future cross at Golgotha with four points. Four meaning the sacrifice is effectual for salvation to the four corners of the World (North, East, West, South)! Now that is Good NEWS! Hallelujah!)
The sacrificial offering was “wholly consumed” meaning “burned to ashes.” Anything that has been reduced to ashes can never be burned again. That is, the judgment has been fully executed with none remaining. This represents the total annihilation the sinner deserves and the total consecration God expects from his followers.
But in those sacrifices there is a reminder of sins year after year. For the blood of bulls and goats cannot take away sins. So when he came into the world, he said, “Sacrifice and offering you did not desire, but a body you prepared for me. “Whole burnt offerings and sin-offerings you took no delight in. “Then I said, ‘Here I am: I have come—it is written of me in the scroll of the book—to do your will, O God.’ ” When he says above, “Sacrifices and offerings and whole burnt offerings and sin-offerings you did not desire nor did you take delight in them” (which are offered according to the law), then he says, “Here I am: I have come to do your will.” He does away with the first to establish the second. By his will we have been made holy through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all. (Hebrews 10:3–10 NET)
But he lifted up our illnesses, he carried our pain; even though we thought he was being punished, attacked by God, and afflicted for something he had done. He was wounded because of our rebellious deeds, crushed because of our sins; he endured punishment that made us well; because of his wounds we have been healed. All of us had wandered off like sheep; each of us had strayed off on his own path, but the Lord caused the sin of all of us to attack him. He was treated harshly and afflicted, but he did not even open his mouth. Like a lamb led to the slaughtering block, like a sheep silent before her shearers, he did not even open his mouth. (Isaiah 53:4–7 NET)
The burnt offering provided a soothing aroma to God as it ascended. From God’s perspective, He was sensing in that smell the death, burial, and resurrection of Jesus followed by His ASCENSION to Heaven! Including the joy brought in the presence of God’s angels (i.e., the joy brought to God our Father in whose presence the angels live) by the salvation of lost sinners! (Luke 15:10)
and burn the whole ram on the altar. It is a burnt offering to the Lord, a soothing aroma; it is an offering made by fire to the Lord. (Exodus 29:18 NET)
Therefore, since we are surrounded by such a great cloud of witnesses, we must get rid of every weight and the sin that clings so closely, and run with endurance the race set out for us, keeping our eyes fixed on Jesus, the pioneer and perfecter of our faith. For the joy set out for him he endured the cross, disregarding its shame, and has taken his seat at the right hand of the throne of God. (Hebrews 12:1–2 NET)
In the same way, I tell you, there is joy in the presence of God’s angels over one sinner who repents.” Luke 15:10 (NET)
I tell you, in the same way there will be more joy in heaven over one sinner who repents than over ninety-nine righteous people who have no need to repent. (Luke 15:7 NET)
Therefore, be imitators of God as dearly loved children and live in love, just as Christ also loved us and gave himself for us, a sacrificial and fragrant offering to God. (Ephesians 5:1–2 NET)
But you will receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon you, and you will be my witnesses in Jerusalem, and in all Judea and Samaria, and to the farthest parts of the earth.” After he had said this, while they were watching, he was lifted up and a cloud hid him from their sight. (Acts 1:8–9 NET)
An interesting story from the Old Covenant connecting burnt offerings with the ascension.
The Lord’s messenger said to Manoah, “If I stay, I will not eat your food. But if you want to make a burnt sacrifice to the Lord, you should offer it.” (He said this because Manoah did not know that he was the Lord’s messenger.) Manoah said to the Lord’s messenger, “Tell us your name, so we can honor you when your announcement comes true.”The Lord’s messenger said to him, “You should not ask me my name, because you cannot comprehend it.”Manoah took a young goat and a grain offering and offered them on a rock to the Lord. The Lord’s messenger did an amazing thing as Manoah and his wife watched. As the flame went up from the altar toward the sky, the Lord’s messenger went up in it while Manoah and his wife watched. They fell facedown to the ground. The Lord’s messenger did not appear again to Manoah and his wife. After all this happened Manoah realized that the visitor had been the Lord’s messenger. (Judges 13:16–21 NET)
Typology of the Required Sacrifices
Recall the selection of the animal was based upon the social-economic status of the individual Jewish member of the commonwealth. Typologically these various animals represent the stages of a believer’s spiritual maturity, including their understanding of Jesus’ sacrifice as they seek the Lord. Note that in Leviticus, the sacrificial animals are listed from the perspective of God looking from the Mercy Seat outward from the Holy of Holies to the approaching believer entering the Outer Courts of the Tabernacle of Moses. However, I listed them from the perspective of the believer entering the Outer Court of the Tabernacle of Moses growing in spiritual maturity as they approach God, our Father, at the Mercy Seat in the Holy of Holies.
The Five Phases of our Spiritual Growth (1) characterized by the Burnt Sacrifices from spiritual newborn to mature Christian (Philippians 3:10–11 NET):
- Pigeon (1) (Isaiah 38:14) – My aim is to know him,
- Turtledove (1) (Luke 3:22)- to experience the power of his resurrection,
- Goat (1) (Leviticus 16:7-10) – to share in his sufferings,
- Sheep (1) (John 1:29. Revelation 5:6) – and be like him in his death,
- Bull (1) (Hosea 10:11,12) – and so, somehow, to attain to the resurrection from the dead.
Finely Sifted (Wheat) Flour
The grain offering was to be made of “fine flour.” In order to make coarse grain into fine flour, you must pound, grind, and sift it repeatedly. Usually, when a loaf of bread is made leaven is added so that it will rise. After the dough is allowed to rise, it is then punched down, kneaded, shaped into a loaf, and then put into the oven to bake. After baking it becomes bread for consumption.
When Jesus was on the cross, our sins, our “leaven,” were placed on Him like a garment. Jesus was beaten, punched to become fine flour, and then placed in God’s furnace of misery; the cross where he suffered God’s judgment in payment for all our sin and sins. In doing so, He became the Bread of Life!
Look, I have refined you, but not as silver; I have purified you in the furnace of misery. (Isaiah 48:10 NET)
I am the living bread that came down from heaven. If anyone eats from this bread he will live forever. The bread that I will give for the life of the world is my flesh.” (John 6:51 NET)
I am speaking to thoughtful people. Consider what I say. Is not the cup of blessing that we bless a sharing in the blood of Christ? Is not the bread that we break a sharing in the body of Christ? Because there is one bread, we who are many are one body, for we all share the one bread. (1 Corinthians 10:15–17 NET)
The Old Leaven of the Kingdom of Darkness
“ ‘No grain offering which you present to the Lord can be made with yeast, for you must not offer up in smoke any yeast or honey as a gift to the Lord. You can present them to the Lord as an offering of first fruit, but they must not go up to the altar for a soothing aroma. (Leviticus 2:11–12 NET)
No grain offering that would be offered on the altar could contain leaven or yeast.
Generally, leaven represents sin in the Bible. Consequently, most offerings contained no leaven because unleavened bread represented Jesus in His perfect, sinless life in the flesh. Jesus committed no sin, had no sin within Himself, and never knew sin; therefore, He qualified to be our sacrificial offering.
Jesus warned his disciples of four dangerous forms of leaven:
The Pharisaical Leaven of Hypocrisy
Meanwhile, when many thousands of the crowd had gathered so that they were trampling on one another, Jesus began to speak first to his disciples:
Meanwhile, when many thousands of the crowd had gathered so that they were trampling on one another, Jesus began to speak first to his disciples, “Be on your guard against the yeast of the Pharisees, which is hypocrisy. (Luke 12:1 NET)
The term hypocrite originated in the Greek drama and means to “put on the face.” The hypocrite was an actor in a play. He pretended to be something that he was not. The Pharisee pretended to be spiritual as he paraded his giving, his praying, and his fasting (Matthew 6). All of his good works were done to be “seen of men” (Matthew 23:25). Christ warned his disciples to “beware” of this leaven by making sure their inside was as good as their outside:
Hypocrites! Isaiah prophesied correctly about you when he said, ‘This people honors me with their lips, but their heart is far from me, and they worship me in vain, teaching as doctrines the commandments of men.’ ” (Matthew 15:7–9 NET)
“Woe to you, experts in the law and you Pharisees, hypocrites! You are like whitewashed tombs that look beautiful on the outside but inside are full of the bones of the dead and of everything unclean. (Matthew 23:27 NET)
In addition, the Pharisees also created laws, contrary to God’s Word, to benefit themselves and used them to control the people.
Thus you nullify the word of God by your tradition that you have handed down. And you do many things like this.” (Mark 7:13 NET))
The Liberal Leaven of the Sadducee
“Watch out,” Jesus said to them, “beware of the yeast of the Pharisees and Sadducees.” (Matthew 16:6 NET)
The Sadducees were the major ruling religious party of Christ’s day. They were very liberal with their handling of scripture interjecting their own human reasoning into the interpretation of it. They thought that the archaic writings of scripture needed to be brought up to date with modern understanding.
They proposed a parable to Jesus in Matthew 23:23-30 to prove in their minds that there couldn’t possibly be any resurrection of the dead. “A woman married and was widowed seven times by seven brethren. In the resurrection whose wife would she be?” Jesus simply corrected their reasoning with Scripture and told them they erred in two ways:
Jesus answered them, “You are deceived, because you don’t know the scriptures or the power of God. (Matthew 22:29 NET)
Not knowing Scripture – When the leaven of liberalism sets in, emphasis on the teaching, preaching, reading, memorizing, and studying of Scripture is left off, causing God’s people to perish (Hosea 4:6).
Not knowing the Power of God – The power of God is only known by believing in the Word of God. When you leave the ministry of the Word, you leave off the powerful object of our faith, the Word of God.
For I am not ashamed of the gospel, for it is God’s power for salvation to everyone who believes, to the Jew first and also to the Greek. For the righteousness of God is revealed in the gospel from faith to faith, just as it is written, “The righteous by faith will live.” (Romans 1:16–17 NET)
Consequently faith comes from what is heard, and what is heard comes through the preached word of Christ. (Romans 10:17 NET)
To purge out the leaven of liberalism in my life, I need only to ask myself if I am obeying:
Trust in the Lord with all your heart, and do not rely on your own understanding. (Proverbs 3:5 NET)
The Worldly Leaven of Herod
And Jesus ordered them, “Watch out! Beware of the yeast of the Pharisees and the yeast of Herod!” (Mark 8:15 NET)
Herod the Great was the great builder of Israel and the darling of Rome. Herod’s followers the Herodians were wholly given to the Greek culture, the Roman power, and the politics of the times. They tried to trap Jesus by asking, “Is it lawful to give unto Caesar?” (Mark 12:14) “This present world”, in every age, has had its allures. Jesus knew his disciples were going to be tempted by the leaven of worldliness, and he prayed the following to His Father:
I am not asking you to take them out of the world, but that you keep them safe from the evil one. (John 17:15 NET)
We are also instructed to be in the world but not of the world, not conformed to it (Romans 12:1-2), and definitely not in love with it (I John 2:15).
Every believer has to make his decision to either chose God or the god of this world:
“No one can serve two masters, for either he will hate the one and love the other, or he will be devoted to the one and despise the other. You cannot serve God and money. (Matthew 6:24 NET)
Beware of the leaven of Herod by considering what happened to the apostle Paul’s hand-picked disciple, whose Christianity by appearance probably would have put ours to shame:
For Demas deserted me, since he loved the present age, and he went to Thessalonica. Crescens went to Galatia and Titus to Dalmatia. (2 Timothy 4:10 NET)
The Unbelieving Leaven of the Pharisees and Sadducees
The sin of leaven is rooted in the sin of unbelief or the lack of faith of the Pharisees and Sadducees that polluted their teaching.
But the man who doubts is condemned if he eats, because he does not do so from faith, and whatever is not from faith is sin. (Romans 14:23 NET)
The Scribes, Pharisees, and Sadducees were jealous of Jesus and routinely attempted to entrap Him with their questions. They had no faith in Him, the living Word of God, or His words. They did not have God’s love in their hearts (John 5:42) and could not discern the times or who He was since faith works through love (Galatians 5:6). Rather than believing that Jesus was the promised Messiah by what He said and did in fulfillment of prophecies (Luke 7:20-23) they wanted a sign, a “magic show.” Jesus only gave them the sign of the prophet Jonah:
Now when the Pharisees and Sadducees came to test Jesus, they asked him to show them a sign from heaven. He said, “When evening comes you say, ‘It will be fair weather, because the sky is red,’ and in the morning, ‘It will be stormy today, because the sky is red and darkening.’ You know how to judge correctly the appearance of the sky, but you cannot evaluate the signs of the times. A wicked and adulterous generation asks for a sign, but no sign will be given to it except the sign of Jonah.” Then he left them and went away. (Matthew 16:1–4 NET)
But he answered them, “An evil and adulterous generation asks for a sign, but no sign will be given to it except the sign of the prophet Jonah. For just as Jonah was in the belly of the huge fish for three days and three nights, so the Son of Man will be in the heart of the earth for three days and three nights. (Matthew 12:39–40 NET)
After this confrontation, Jesus immediately left and went across the lake with His disciples. The disciples became anxious about how they would provide food to feed His followers. Recall they had witnessed Jesus’ miracle of the multiplication of the bread on two previous occasions; once for Jews and the other time for Gentiles. Jesus was attempting to help them see their “lack of faith” and used The recent confrontation with the Sadducees and Pharisees and their “lack of faith” to provide a case study.
When the disciples went to the other side, they forgot to take bread. “Watch out,” Jesus said to them, “beware of the yeast of the Pharisees and Sadducees.”So they began to discuss this among themselves, saying, “It is because we brought no bread.” When Jesus learned of this, he said, “You who have such little faith! Why are you arguing among yourselves about having no bread? Do you still not understand? Don’t you remember the five loaves for the five thousand, and how many baskets you took up? Or the seven loaves for the four thousand and how many baskets you took up? How could you not understand that I was not speaking to you about bread? But beware of the yeast of the Pharisees and Sadducees!” Then they understood that he had not told them to be on guard against the yeast in bread, but against the teaching of the Pharisees and Sadducees. (Matthew 16:5–12 NET)
Jesus warned the disciples to guard against the leaven or teaching of the Pharisees and Sadducees’ because it was not based on faith and therefore is sin. (Romans 14:23). Jesus instructed the disciples that they needed to have faith in Him and His words without the impurity of a lack of faith. The teaching of the Pharisees and Sadducees removed faith from the people because like leaven, it permeated throughout the truth that came from what Jesus taught, the true bread from Heaven.
A little yeast makes the whole batch of dough rise! (Galatians 5:9 NET)
The bread dough was to be mixed with olive oil (1), beaten, pounded into the desired shape, and baked in an oven. If it was an unleavened “cake,” it was to be “mixed with oil”. If it was an “unleavened wafer”, it was to be “anointed” with oil.
Mixed with oil is a picture of Jesus who was born without sin and full of the Holy Spirit. Jesus was “anointed with oil,” upon coming up out of the waters after being baptized by John. At that time, The Holy Spirit rested ON HIM (poured over Him as oil) without measure.
You love justice and hate evil. For this reason God, your God has anointed you with the oil of joy, elevating you above your companions. (Psalm 45:7 NET)
You have loved righteousness and hated lawlessness. So God, your God, has anointed you over your companions with the oil of rejoicing.” (Hebrews 1:9 NET)
And the disciples were filled with joy and with the Holy Spirit. (Acts 13:52 NET)
Frankincense is used for incense and perfume as it has a sweet smell. Paul alludes to a fragrant offering figuratively in the New Covenant.
For I have received everything, and I have plenty. I have all I need because I received from Epaphroditus what you sent—a fragrant offering, an acceptable sacrifice, very pleasing to God. And my God will supply your every need according to his glorious riches in Christ Jesus. May glory be given to God our Father forever and ever. Amen. (Philippians 4:18–20 NET)
Frankincense is tapped from the scraggly but hardy trees by slashing the bark, which is called striping, and allowing the exuded resin to bleed out and harden. These hardened resins are called Frankincense tears.
This depicts the horrendous torture He suffered by slashings and stripes from the whippings and beatings before He suffered the most disgraceful death of crucifixion. Furthermore, it represents what Jesus is doing for us in the present role as our Great High Priest and Covenant Mediator.
Therefore since we have a great high priest who has passed through the heavens, Jesus the Son of God, let us hold fast to our confession. For we do not have a high priest incapable of sympathizing with our weaknesses, but one who has been tempted in every way just as we are, yet without sin. Therefore let us confidently approach the throne of grace to receive mercy and find grace whenever we need help. (Hebrews 4:14–16 NET)
Moreover, you must season every one of your grain offerings with salt; you must not allow the salt of the covenant of your God to be missing from your grain offering—on every one of your grain offerings you must present salt. (Leviticus 2:13 NET)
All grain offering were required to have salt added to them.
According to the Babylonian Talmud the salt used in the service of the temple must come from Sodom (the Dead Sea area):
III:2: Nor shall you allow salt to be lacking:” Since the word for “be lacking” uses the same consonants as those in the word Sabbath, the meaning is: produce salt that has no Sabbath but is produced winter and summer, and what is that? It is salt from Sodom. (XIV)
Since salt was regarded in the ancient Near East as not being destructible by fire, “a covenant of salt” seems to refer to an eternal covenant (Numbers 18:19; 2 Chronicles 13:5) (XIII)
Salt has the following characteristics:
Salt Preserves – many of the disciples Jesus called were fishermen and were well aware of the ability of salt to preserve caught fish and thus keep them from spoiling.
As he went along the Sea of Galilee, he saw Simon and Andrew, Simon’s brother, casting a net into the sea (for they were fishermen). Jesus said to them, “Follow me, and I will turn you into fishers of people.”They left their nets immediately and followed him. Going on a little farther, he saw James, the son of Zebedee, and John his brother in their boat mending nets. Immediately he called them, and they left their father Zebedee in the boat with the hired men and followed him. (Mark 1:16–20 NET)
Salt stands for permanence and incorruptibility. Thus when salt is used in a “covenant of salt,” it always signifies an everlasting covenant, with the salt being an emblem or symbol of perpetuity. The use of salt in an offering would therefore signify the everlasting relation between God and His people—they everlastingly belong to Him, and He everlastingly belongs to them. For this reason, salt and permanence were always associated in a covenant; 2 Chronicles 13:5 states: “Don’t you know that the LORD, the God of Israel, has given the kingship of Israel to David and his descendants forever by a covenant of salt?” (XV)
Salt Flavors – salt is added to food to bring out its flavor. Salt can turn bland food into savory!
Can food that is tasteless be eaten without salt? Or is there any taste in the white of an egg? (Job 6:6 NET)
Salt Heals – in Biblical times salt was rubbed on newborn babies due to salt’s antiseptic properties.
The men of the city said to Elisha, “Look, the city has a good location, as our master can see. But the water is bad and the land doesn’t produce crops.”Elisha said, “Get me a new jar and put some salt in it.” So they got it. He went out to the spring and threw the salt in. Then he said, “This is what the Lord says, ‘I have purified this water. It will no longer cause death or fail to produce crops.”The water has been pure to this very day, just as Elisha prophesied. (2 Kings 2:19–22 NET)
Salt Penetrates – a small amount of salt in a bottle of water will be nearly instantly salty throughout.
Salt represented the permanence of the covenant that the Israelites had just entered into with the Lord (Exod. 20–24). By requiring the Israelites to add salt to their offerings, the Lord provided a way for them constantly to affirm their covenant relationship with him. This affirmation would have greatly encouraged the people, by reminding them of the Lord’s steadfast commitment to be their covenant King. They especially needed this encouragement as they prepared to enter the Promised Land and establish God’s kingdom there. Only the presence of their covenant King in their midst could give them confidence in the success of their mission. (It is no different for the Christian today; this is no doubt why Jesus assures us of his presence when giving us our covenant mission; Matt. 28:18–20.) As well as being an encouragement, the requirement of the salt of the covenant served to remind the Israelites of their covenant obligations. The Lord had chosen them to be ‘a kingdom of priests and a holy nation’ (Exod. 19:6), and the covenant laws he had given them had to be followed in order to show to the nations the Lord’s wisdom, righteousness and holiness (1) (Lev. 20:24b–26; Deut. 4:5–8). (III)
Jesus picks up on the same principle when he tells his disciples, ‘In the same way, let your light shine before others, that they may see your good deeds and glorify your Father in heaven’ (Matthew. 5:16). To follow the King’s commands is to reflect the King’s character. Believers are to do this in such a radical way that people end up knowing the King’s character by seeing how his servants live. (III)
Let your speech always be gracious, seasoned with salt, so that you may know how you should answer everyone. (Colossians 4:6 NET)
Therefore, having laid aside falsehood, each one of you speak the truth with his neighbor, for we are members of one another. (Ephesians 4:25 NET)
Salt is good, but if it loses its saltiness, how can you make it salty again? Have salt in yourselves, and be at peace with each other.” (Mark 9:50 NET)
Furthermore, Jesus equates being “salted with fire” with the growth in the fruit of the Spirit resulting from effectively suffering (1) for the Gospel’s sake.
Everyone will be salted with fire.(Mark 9:49 NET)
Dear friends, do not be astonished that a trial by fire is occurring among you, as though something strange were happening to you. But rejoice in the degree that you have shared in the sufferings of Christ, so that when his glory is revealed you may also rejoice and be glad. If you are insulted for the name of Christ, you are blessed, because the Spirit of glory, who is the Spirit of God, rests on you. But let none of you suffer as a murderer or thief or criminal or as a troublemaker. (1 Peter 4:12–15 NET)
The system of sacrifices in the Old Testament symbolized the consecration of man to God. There were two basic classifications of sacrifices: those that reestablished fellowship with God (sin offering and guilt offering), and those that expressed an ongoing fellowship with God (Burnt Offering, Meal Offering, Peace Offering). The drink offering freely given to God as an act of adoration and worship belongs to this second classification. (XII)
For I am already being poured out as a drink offering, and the time of my departure has come. (2 Timothy 4:6 ESV)
Paul’s declaration that he was already being poured out like a drink offering, comes from the Mosaic Law of sacrifices. (XII)
The drink offering always consisted of wine. There was no substitute. It represented the fruit of the earth, or a product of a person’s labor. The drink offering recognized God as Creator and Lord over all the earth.
Binding his foal to the vine and his donkey’s colt to the choice vine, he has washed his garments in wine and his vesture in the blood of grapes. (Genesis 49:11 NET)
On a deeper level, wine also represents blood, the essence of human life. Pouring wine upon the altar in sacrifice to God depicted a person’s total dedication—soul, spirit, and body. (XII)
for the life of every living thing is in the blood. So I myself have assigned it to you on the altar to make atonement for your lives, for the blood makes atonement by means of the life. (Leviticus 17:11 NET)
Indeed according to the law almost everything was purified with blood, and without the shedding of blood there is no forgiveness. (Hebrews 9:22 NET)
The blood of Jesus is conceptualized as wine poured out from a container. (XI)
And in the same way he took the cup after they had eaten, saying, “This cup that is poured out for you is the new covenant in my blood. (Luke 22:20 NET)
He said to them, “This is my blood, the blood of the covenant, that is poured out for many. (Mark 14:24 NET)
for this is my blood, the blood of the covenant, that is poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins. (Matthew 26:28 NET)
Paul knew that atonement for his sins had been achieved through the blood of Jesus Christ (1). But as he languished in prison, perhaps he reflected on the meaning of his approaching death. He knew that his death was a freewill offering to God, an oblation of his life upon the altar. He sacrificed himself in the service of Christ, recognizing him as sovereign over all creation. As a drink offering, Paul poured out the fruit of his labors and the essence of his life. (XII)
The Tabernacle of Moses Series:
- God’s Heavenly Pattern for our Spiritual Transformation – Part I: The Outer Court
- God’s Heavenly Pattern for our Spiritual Transformation – Part II: The Holy Place
- God’s Heavenly Pattern for our Spiritual Transformation – Part III: The Holy Place
- God’s Heavenly Pattern for our Spiritual Transformation – Part IV: The Holy Place
- God’s Heavenly Pattern for our Spiritual Transformation – Part V: The Most Holy Place
- God’s Heavenly Pattern for our Spiritual Transformation – Part VI: The Priestly Garments
- God’s Heavenly Pattern for our Spiritual Transformation – Part VII: Our Great High Priest
Sacrifices and Offerings of the Old Covenant
- The Five Fire Sacrifices and Offerings of Israel – Introduction
- The Five Fire Sacrifices and Offerings of Israel – The Burnt Offering
- The Five Fire Sacrifices and Offerings of Israel – The Meal Offering
- The Five Fire Sacrifices and Offerings of Israel – The Peace Offering
- The Five Fire Sacrifices and Offerings of Israel – The Sin Offering
- The Five Fire Sacrifices and Offerings of Israel – The Trespass Offering
(1) Left-click on the underlined phrase to open another article in a different tab with more explanation.
(2) This article has been primarily adapted from: Fruchtenbaum, A. G. (1983). The Messianic Bible Study Collection (Vol. 180, p. 10). Tustin, CA: Ariel Ministries.
(3) Wenham, G. J. (1981). Numbers: an introduction and commentary (Vol. 4, p. 220). Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.
(4) The male animal represents this sacrifice is for God’s benefit. Recall, Adam, a male, was made for God’s benefit.
“It follows that I show for what purpose God made man himself. As He contrived the world for the sake of man, so He formed man himself on His own account, as it were a priest of a divine temple, a spectator of His works and of heavenly objects. For he is the only being who, since he is intelligent and capable of reason, is able to understand God, to admire His works, and perceive His energy and power; for on this account he is furnished with judgment, intelligence, and prudence. On this account he alone, beyond the other living creatures, has been made with an upright body and attitude, so that he seems to have been raised up for the contemplation of his Parent. On this account he alone has received language, and a tongue the interpreter of his thought, that he may be able to declare the majesty of his Lord. Lastly, for this cause all things were placed under his control, that he himself might be under the control of God, their Maker and Creator. If God, therefore, designed man to be a worshipper of Himself, and on this account gave him so much honour, that he might rule over all things; it is plainly most just that he should worship Him who bestowed upon him such great gifts, and love man, who is united with us in the participation of the divine justice.”
Lactantius. (1886). A Treatise on the Anger of God. In A. Roberts, J. Donaldson, & A. C. Coxe (Eds.), W. Fletcher (Trans.), Fathers of the Third and Fourth Centuries: Lactantius, Venantius, Asterius, Victorinus, Dionysius, Apostolic Teaching and Constitutions, Homily, and Liturgies (Vol. 7, p. 271). Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Company.
Eve, a female, was made for the man Adam’s benefit and hence when female animals are prescribed in other sacrifices then it is for mankind’s benefit.
The Lord God said, “It is not good for the man to be alone. I will make a companion for him who corresponds to him.” (Genesis 2:18 NET)
(5) An animal is considered a lamb or kid if it is still a yearling [one year old or less]; once it reaches the age of 13 months and a day, it is considered a ram. In between those ages it is a palgas, an “adolescent” sheep.
Carasik, M. (Ed.). (2011). Numbers: Introduction and Commentary. (M. Carasik, Trans.) (First edition, Nu 15:11). Philadelphia, PA: The Jewish Publication Society.
Sheep get two teeth in at one year of age. These teeth are permanent. Each year until the animal is four, it will get two more teeth, so by her fourth birthday, a ewe will have a total of 8 teeth. The only way to accurately determine the age of a sheep is by looking in its mouth. https://familyfarmlivestock.com/what-are-the-differences-between-sheep-and-lambs/
(6) 5:1 A The daily whole offering [of the afternoon] [generally] was slaughtered at half after the eighth hour [after dawn, about 2:30 P.M.] and offered up at half after the ninth hour [about 3:30 P.M.].
B On the eve of Passover, [the daily whole offering] was slaughtered at half after the seventh hour and offered up at half after the eighth hour.
C whether on an ordinary day or on the Sabbath.
D [If, however,] the eve of Passover coincided with the eve of the Sabbath [Friday], it was slaughtered at half after the sixth hour [12:30 P.M.] and offered up at half after the seventh hour [1:30 P.M.],
E and [then] the Passover offering [was slaughtered] after it.
Neusner, J. (1988). The Mishnah : A new translation (pp. 236–237). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
(7) Freeman, J. M., & Chadwick, H. J. (1998). Manners & customs of the Bible (p. 145). North Brunswick, NJ: Bridge-Logos Publishers.
(8) Singer, I. (Ed.). (1901–1906). In The Jewish Encyclopedia: A Descriptive Record of the History, Religion, Literature, and Customs of the Jewish People from the Earliest Times to the Present Day, 12 Volumes (Vol. 11, p. 591). New York; London: Funk & Wagnalls.
(9) Péter-Contesse, R., & Ellington, J. (1992). A handbook on Leviticus (p. 23). New York: United Bible Societies.
(I) Neusner, J. (1988). The Mishnah : A new translation (p. 742). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
(II) Malda, B. D. (Ed.). (2015). Come and Worship: Ways to Worship from the Hebrew Scriptures (p. 62). Clarksville, MD: Lederer Books: a division of Messianic Jewish Publishers.
(III) Sklar, J. (2013). Leviticus: An Introduction and Commentary. (D. G. Firth, Ed.) (Vol. 3, p. 101). Nottingham, England: Inter-Varsity Press.
(IV) Masterman, E. W. G. (1915). Barley. In J. Orr, J. L. Nuelsen, E. Y. Mullins, & M. O. Evans (Eds.), The International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia (Vol. 1–5, p. 405). Chicago: The Howard-Severance Company.
(V) Balfour, J. H. (1885). The Plants of the Bible (p. 212). London; Edinburgh; New York: T. Nelson and Sons.
(VI) Eisenberg, R. L. (2004). The JPS guide to Jewish traditions (1st ed., p. 670). Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society.
(VII) Hannah, J. D. (1985). Exodus. In J. F. Walvoord & R. B. Zuck (Eds.), The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures (Vol. 1, p. 153). Wheaton, IL: Victor Books.
(VIII) Easton, M. G. (1893). In Easton’s Bible dictionary. New York: Harper & Brothers.
(IX) Singer, I. (Ed.). (1901–1906). In The Jewish Encyclopedia: A Descriptive Record of the History, Religion, Literature, and Customs of the Jewish People from the Earliest Times to the Present Day, 12 Volumes (Vol. 9, p. 568). New York; London: Funk & Wagnalls.
(X) Hamilton, M. W. (2000). Elevation Offering. In D. N. Freedman, A. C. Myers, & A. B. Beck (Eds.), Eerdmans dictionary of the Bible (p. 392). Grand Rapids, MI: W.B. Eerdmans.
(XI) (2016). The Lexham Figurative Language of the New Testament Dataset. In J. R. Westbury, J. Thompson, K. A. Lyle, & J. Parks (Eds.), Lexham Figurative Language of the Bible Glossary. Bellingham, WA: Lexham Press.
(XII) Larson, K. (2000). I & II Thessalonians, I & II Timothy, Titus, Philemon (Vol. 9, p. 331). Nashville, TN: Broadman & Holman Publishers.
(XIII) Lindsey, F. D. (1985). Leviticus. In J. F. Walvoord & R. B. Zuck (Eds.), The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures (Vol. 1, p. 177). Wheaton, IL: Victor Books.
(XIV) Neusner, J. (2011). The Babylonian Talmud: A Translation and Commentary (Vol. 19, p. 617). Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers.
(XV) Freeman, J. M., & Chadwick, H. J. (1998). Manners & customs of the Bible (p. 143). North Brunswick, NJ: Bridge-Logos Publishers.
(XVI) Wuest, K. S. (1961). The New Testament: an expanded translation (1 Co 5:6–8). Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.
(XVII) Thompson, J. A. (1974). Deuteronomy: An Introduction and Commentary (Vol. 5, p. 147). Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.
(XVIII) Keach, B. (1858). An Exposition of the Parables and Express Similitudes of Our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ (pp. 239–240). London: Aylott and Co.