Impact

The Feasts of Israel – Unleavened Bread

These are the Lord’s appointed times, holy assemblies, which you must proclaim at their appointed time. Leviticus 23:4

Historical Background of the Feast of Unleavened Bread

The Hebrew name for this feast is Hag Hamatzot (Hawg Hah-MAHT-zot) which means “the feast of unleavened bread,” emphasizing the necessity of leaven’s absence. (2)

The Feast of Unleavened Bread is one of the three pilgrimage feasts when all Jewish males were required to go to Jerusalem to “appear before the Lord” (Deuteronomy 16:16. Exodus 23:14-17) (7)

Three times a year all your males must appear before the Lord your God in the place he chooses for the Festival of Unleavened Bread, the Festival of Weeks, and the Festival of Temporary Shelters; and they must not appear before him empty-handed. (Deuteronomy 16:16 NET)

To commemorate that Israel departed from Egypt in the month of the Abib (1), Israel was instructed to bring the Passover (1) sacrifice and celebrate the Feast of Unleavened Bread (Chag HaMatzot) at this time of year. (5)

You are to observe the Feast of Unleavened Bread; seven days you must eat bread made without yeast, as I commanded you, at the appointed time of the month of Abib, for at that time you came out of Egypt. No one may appear before me empty-handed. (Exodus 23:15 NET)(cf. Exodus 34:18)

The Feast of Unleavened Bread was celebrated the day after Passover, which was on the 14th of Nisan, and lasted from the 15th to the 21st in the Hebrew month of Nisan (1). This is in the spring months of March-April on the Gentile calendar. (2)

Then on the fifteenth day of the same month will be the festival of unleavened bread to the Lord; seven days you must eat unleavened bread. On the first day there will be a holy assembly for you; you must not do any regular work. You must present a gift to the Lord for seven days, and the seventh day is a holy assembly; you must not do any regular work.’ ” (Leviticus 23:6–8 NET)

Note from this Scripture that the first and last days of this feast (the 15th and 21st Nisan) are High Sabbath days. These days, the people were to cease from their labors and spend time meditating on God and His greatness and goodness. Passover, the 14th of Nisan, was the Preparation Day for the first day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread, which was on the 15th of Nisan. (2)

The Feast of Unleavened Bread Observed for the First Time in the Old Covenant (circa 1447 B.C.) (19)

When God delivered the Hebrews from Egypt, He brought them out with such haste that they did not have time to bake their bread, which would have normally included leaven. Over time, leaven became symbolic of the Hebrew’s old life of bondage in Egypt under Pharaoh and the Egyptian’s world system, which was contrary to God. Unleavened bread symbolized their putting off this old life as they came out of Egypt. (2)

Moses said to the people, “Remember this day on which you came out from Egypt, from the place where you were enslaved, for the Lord brought you out of there with a mighty hand—and no bread made with yeast may be eaten. On this day, in the month of Abib, you are going out. (Exodus 13:3,4 NET)

It is not clear that the Feast of Unleavened Bread was celebrated for Seven Days. However, the Israelites did make bread without yeast on the way out of Egypt.

The Egyptians were urging the people on, in order to send them out of the land quickly, for they were saying, “We are all dead!” So the people took their dough before the yeast was added, with their kneading troughs bound up in their clothing on their shoulders... They baked cakes of bread without yeast using the dough they had brought from Egypt, for it was made without yeast—because they were thrust out of Egypt and were not able to delay, they could not prepare food for themselves either. (Exodus 12:33,34,39 NET)

Again, God instructed the Hebrews to keep the Feast of Unleavened Bread as a memorial to their separation from Egypt. Leavened bread was not eaten at Passover on the 14th of Nisan or the following seven days, as is stated in the book of Exodus:

Moses said to the people, “Remember this day on which you came out from Egypt, from the place where you were enslaved, for the Lord brought you out of there with a mighty hand—and no bread made with yeast may be eaten. On this day, in the month of Abib, you are going out. When the Lord brings you to the land of the Canaanites, Hittites, Amorites, Hivites, and Jebusites, which he swore to your fathers to give you, a land flowing with milk and honey, then you will keep this ceremony in this month. For seven days you must eat bread made without yeast, and on the seventh day there is to be a festival to the Lord. Bread made without yeast must be eaten for seven days; no bread made with yeast shall be seen among you, and you must have no yeast among you within any of your borders.
(Exodus 13:3–7 NET)

There are eight unique features of the Feast of Unleavened Bread:

  • On the first day (Nisan 15), all yeast or leaven must be put away from their dwellings (Exodus 12:15). Since the Feast of Unleavened Bread followed Passover on Nisan 14, bread without yeast was put away from their dwelling for a total of eight days.
  • For the Seven Days, no yeast must be within their dwellings (Exodus 12:19). The utensils used must never have touched leaven. (7) This interrupts the normal leavening process of using a lump from an old loaf as yeast when baking new bread. Therefore, new leaven must be cultivated for their bread after the Feast of Unleavened Bread concludes.
  • On the first day, there is to be a holy convocation (Exodus 12:16. Numbers 28:18))
  • On the last day, there is to be a holy convocation (Exodus 12:16)
  • Preparation of meals is allowed on the first and last days but is the only work permitted in contrast with a weekly Sabbath where no work was permitted (Exodus 12:16).
  • For Seven Days, bread without yeast is to be made and eaten starting from Nisan 15 until Nisan 21. (Exodus 12:15,18. Numbers 28:17) Since the Feast of Unleavened Bread followed Passover on Nisan 14, bread without yeast was eaten for eight days from Nisan 14. until Nisan 21.
  • Nothing containing yeast could be eaten by a native-born or foreigner under the penalty of being cut off from the community of Israel (Exodus 12:19,20)
  • They were free to eat anything without yeast that was also allowable under the Mosiac Law.

Required Sacrifices

The animal to be sacrificed had to have the following four general characteristics. The animal had to be: 

  • ceremonially clean, 
  • utilitarian, meaning “usable for food” or sustenance, 
  • domesticated (i.e., those that obeyed their master’s will and more or less were endeared to the offerer), and
  • types of animal sacrifices (see “Sacrifices and Offerings of the Old Covenant” table immediately below)

In addition, the animal to be sacrificed had to meet the following three criteria:

  • Condition – perfect without spot, blemish, disease, or deformity (cf. Malachi 1:8)
  • Gender – Male (6) and
  • Age – generally, the lamb or kid had to be one year old [i.e., a lamb or kid at the peak of life and health]. The bull and ram must be older than seven days (Leviticus 22:27) or as old as three years. (2)

There were Five Sequential Steps for Preparation of the Feast of Unleavened Bread:

  1. Before the Feasts of Passover and Unleavened Bread could be celebrated, all the leaven (i.e., yeast) was to be removed from the Hebrew’s houses and thrown away. (Exodus 12:15,16).
  2. This required a great amount of spring housecleaning. Everything in the house was thoroughly washed, scrubbed, and cleaned. This included the walls, ceilings, floors, furniture, cabinets, etc. The cooking ware was boiled in water, and special utensils were used that had not been contaminated with leaven. (3)
  3. Once the cleaning was complete, the family would participate in a ceremony called the “search for the leaven.” After dark, the head of the house would take a lighted candle (cf. Zephaniah 1:12) and diligently search through every nook and cranny of the house looking for any hidden leaven. If he found any, he would immediately remove it from the house. (3)
  4. The absence of yeast suggested that those who were under the safety of shed blood were free from the corruption of sin before a Holy God. If anyone ate anything with yeast in those feast days, he would be cut off from Israel (Exodus 12:19). That is, they would be excluded from the camp, separated from covenant rights and privileges, possibly resulting in death. (8)
  5. We can clearly see from this feast that its purpose was, and still is today, a reminder to the Jewish people that God called them out of Egypt to be a separate people unto Himself. It was a permanent memorial of their deliverance from Egypt and the bondage, oppression, sorrow, and suffering that was part of their old life. (3)
The Second Recorded Passover Observation in the Old Covenant (circa 1446 B.C.) (19)

The Israelites observed the Passover one year after leaving Egypt while under the leadership of Moses. However, there is no indication that the Feast of Unleavened Bread was celebrated. (Numbers 9:1–5 NET)

The Unleavened Bread Feast Requirements are Modified (circa 1407 B.C.) (6)

Initially, Passover was a local observance centered on the nuclear family and their home. However, since Passover became a pilgrimage festival centered on the Tabernacle (or later the Temple), it was merged with the Feast of Unleavened Bread, which was already a pilgrimage festival. That is, two separate yet contiguous feasts are now clarified to be a combined pilgrimage Feast. (12) Consequently, the two were treated together as a single commemoration, with the result that either festival name could designate the entire eight days.

The provision for preparing meals on the last day was rescinded. Consequently, the last day is treated as a weekly Sabbath with no work, including no preparing meals, which was formerly permitted. (Deuteronomy 16:1-8)

The Third Recorded Passover Observation in the Old Covenant (circa 1406 B.C.) (6)

Israel observed the Passover on Nisan 14 after entering the Promised land under the leadership of Joshua. However, it is not clear that the Feast of Unleavened Bread was celebrated for seven days at this time . (Joshua 5:10–12)

It was after this Passover when they ate of the produce of the Promised Land on Nisan 15, the first day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread, that the manna stopped appearing.

The Fourth Recorded Passover-Unleavened Bread Festival Observation in the Old Covenant (circa 1045 – 1035 B.C) (6)

There is indirect evidence that Passovers were observed under the leadership of the Prophet, Priest, and Judge Samuel (1 Samuel 7:6; 7:15-17. Acts 13:20) Samuel is believed to have lived from 1075 – 1035 B.C. (6) There is no clear indication that the Feast of Unleavened Bread was celebrated. However, since the Passover and the Feast of Unleavened Bread were combined it may have been held. (2 Chronicles 35:17–18. 2 Kings 23:21–22)

Furthermore, there is evidence that the Feast of Unleavened Bread was generally held under King Solomon. (2 Chronicles 8:12-14)

The Fifth Recorded Passover-Unleavened Bread Festival Observation in the Old Covenant (circa 715 B.C.) (6)

Israel observed the Passover on the 14th of the month of Iyyar (1) under the leadership of King Hezekiah. The Passover was celebrated in the second month instead of the first month. which apparently was based on the allowance for having Passover in the second month was considered precedence. However, that exception was only made for observing Passover in the second month and not the Feast of Unleavened Bread and was specifically for those that were ceremonially unclean having touched the dead body of a man. (Numbers 9:6-12). Nevertheless, the people, the temple, and the priests were either not sanctified in time to observe it in the first month and they were not yet assembled (2 Chronicles 30:3). This because Hezekiah’s reforms had begun in the first month, and the Israelites did not finish cleaning the temple until the 16th day of the first month (2 Chronicles 29:17,18). (3)

Noteworthy is that this festival combines the Feast of Unleavened Bread and Passover since the account begins stating they held “the Feast of Unleavened Bread in the second month” (2 Chronicles 30:13). The narrative does little to describe how the Passover was observed since the only detail it reports is the slaughter of the Passover lamb on the 14th. However, the narrative does make it clear that there was confusion over how to celebrate the Passover. That is, some of the Israelites had not properly consecrated themselves and so were still unclean when they ate the sacrifice. These people did not eat “as it was written” (ככתוב, kktwb), suggesting there were written instructions that were not widely known. Hezekiah prayed for God to accept those whose hearts were in the right place in seeking God, even if they had outwardly failed to complete the proper purification, perhaps in ignorance. (12) Furthermore, the Unleavened Bread Feast was such a wonderful festival of praise, that they continued it for seven more days. (4) (2 Chronicles 30:1–31:1 NET)

The Sixth Recorded Passover-Unleavened Bread Festival Observation in the Old Covenant (circa 640 B.C.) (6)

Israel observed the Passover on the 14th of the month of Nisan (1), immediately followed by the Feast of Unleavened Bread from the 15th until the 21st, under the leadership of King Josiah. King Josiah and his officials donated many animals to provide Passover sacrifices for all the people. The mix of animals for sacrifice included sheep, lambs, young goats, and bulls. (2 Chronicles 35:1–19 NET)

The people kept the Passover and then observed the Feast of Unleavened Bread. The narrator ends by praising Josiah’s Passover, noting “there was no Passover like it kept in Israel since the days of Samuel the prophet.” (2 Kings 23:21–23 NET)

Note the apparent contradiction in the preceding verses. King Hezekiah of Judah had observed a Passover in approximately 715 B.C. (discussed previously in this article); however, this passage states that the one under Josiah was the first Passover during the kings of Israel. The solution to this apparent contradiction is found in the words “a Passover like this” meaning in strict compliance with the scriptural protocol. Again, Josiah’s Passover was observed strictly by the scriptural guidance juxtaposed to Hezekiah’s Passover which was:

  • conducted in the second month as allowed for those unclean due to touching a dead body or traveling and out of the area which was not the case in this situation,
  • the Levites had to offer sacrifices for the unclean Israelites instead of the male head of the household,
  • unclean Israelites partook of the Passover meal, and
  • not all Israelites partook of the Passover meal.

While our God is full of grace, mercy, and compassion, there are always consequences to violations of His word. However, God will rescue us in the consequences and restore us as we turn to Him in repentance.

The Seventh and Last Recorded Passover-Unleavened Bread Festival Observation in the Old Covenant (circa 516 B.C.) (6)

The last mention of a Passover observance in the Old Testament is the celebration of Passover that followed the dedication of the second temple after the Jews returned from exile in Babylon (Ezra 6:19–22). (12)



The First Recorded Passover Observation in the New Covenant (circa 7 A.D.) (6)
Now Jesus’ parents went to Jerusalem every year for the feast of the Passover. When he was twelve years old, they went up according to custom. But when the feast was over, as they were returning home, the boy Jesus stayed behind in Jerusalem. His parents did not know it, but (because they assumed that he was in their group of travelers) they went a day’s journey. Then they began to look for him among their relatives and acquaintances. When they did not find him, they returned to Jerusalem to look for him. After three days they found him in the temple courts, sitting among the teachers, listening to them and asking them questions. And all who heard Jesus were astonished at his understanding and his answers. When his parents saw him, they were overwhelmed. His mother said to him, “Child, why have you treated us like this? Look, your father and I have been looking for you anxiously.”But he replied, “Why were you looking for me? Didn’t you know that I must be in my Father’s house?” (Luke 2:41–49 NET) 
The Second Recorded Passover Observation in the New Covenant and First Temple Cleansing (circa 28 A.D.) (6)

During this visit to Jerusalem, Jesus performs the first of three Temple cleansings on or immediately before Passover on Nisan 14, 3788 (March 27, 28 A.D.). Realize, each Temple cleansing occurred on or immediately before Passover.

After this he went down to Capernaum with his mother and brothers and his disciples, and they stayed there a few days. Now the Jewish feast of Passover was near, so Jesus went up to Jerusalem. He found in the temple courts those who were selling oxen and sheep and doves, and the money changers sitting at tables. So he made a whip of cords and drove them all out of the temple courts, with the sheep and the oxen. He scattered the coins of the money changers and overturned their tables. To those who sold the doves he said, “Take these things away from here! Do not make my Father’s house a marketplace!” His disciples remembered that it was written, “Zeal for your house will devour me.” (John 2:13-17

This Temple cleansing occurred very early in the public ministry of Jesus as evidenced by the mentioning of forty-six years of temple construction by the Jewish leaders.

So then the Jewish leaders responded, “What sign can you show us, since you are doing these things? ”Jesus replied, “Destroy this temple and in three days I will raise it up again.” Then the Jewish leaders said to him, “This temple has been under construction for forty-six years, and are you going to raise it up in three days?” But Jesus was speaking about the temple of his body. So after he was raised from the dead, his disciples remembered that he had said this, and they believed the scripture and the saying that Jesus had spoken. (John 2:18–22 NET) 

“Herod the Great, also called Herod I, became king in 37 bc and ruled until his death in 4 bc. He was about 73 years old at the time when Jesus was born, and it was Herod who ordered the massacre of the children of Bethlehem.” (55)

According to Josephus (Ant. 15.11.1 [15.380]), work on this temple was begun in the 18th year of Herod the Great’s reign, which would have been ca. 19 b.c.. (53) 

37 B.C. – 18 years = 19 B.C.

“[Book 15, Chapter 11] 1. (380) And now Herod, in the eighteenth year of his reign, and after the acts already mentioned, undertook a very great work, that is, to build of himself the temple of God,” (54)

46 years – 19 B.C. + 1 (offset for no year zero) = 28 A.D.

Now while Jesus was in Jerusalem at the feast of the Passover, many people believed in his name because they saw the miraculous signs he was doing. But Jesus would not entrust himself to them, because he knew all people. He did not need anyone to testify about man, for he knew what was in man. (John 2:23–25 NET)

His time for crucifixion was not yet, Jesus did not entrust Himself to them but spoke enigmatically about His crucifixion, death, burial, and resurrection, then exited the temple area.

The third Recorded Passover Observation in the New Covenant (circa 29 A.D.) (6)
And it came to pass, on the second-first sabbath, as he is going through the corn fields, that his disciples were plucking the ears, and were eating, rubbing with the hands,
(Luke 6:1 YLT)

The “second-first sabbath” has been a subject of much debate over the centuries as this Greek word is only used in this passage of the New Covenant. However, one of the interpretations is this word refers to the Weekly Sabbath after the Nisan 15th High Sabbath of the Feast of Unleavened Bread. This weekly Sabbath was when the Firstfruits of Barley were harvested for presentation on the following Sunday. (57)

The presentation of the Firstfruits of Barley stars the “Counting of the Omer” to 50 days, or 7 weeks plus one day, to the Feast of Weeks or Pentecost where the Firstfruits of the wheat harvest is presented.

Don’t you say, ‘There are four more months and then comes the harvest?’ I tell you, look up and see that the fields are already white for harvest! (John 4:35 NET)

As regards the period of “four months, it appears that the Jews divided the agricultural year into six periods of two months, the first four being “seed-time” “winter,” “winter-solstice,” “harvest.” It might therefore be common for farmers and labourers at the conclusion of “seed-time,” to say “Yet four months [i.e. winter and winter-solstice] and the harvest cometh,” and from agriculturists the saying might pass into a proverb inculcating patient expectation.” (58)

Since the time for the presentation of the Firstfruits of the Barley was met, this meant the Barley Harvest was ready to be harvested, so no need to wait expectantly for it. Similarly, since Jesus the Firstfruits was present, the harvest of souls was ready, and there was no need to continuing to wait expectantly for the Messiah, “the who would tell us everything” (John 4:25,26).

After this there was a Jewish feast, and Jesus went up to Jerusalem. (John 5:1 NET)

This would be the Pilgrimage Feast of Weeks or Pentecost 50 days following the Sunday of the Firstfruits of Barley Presentation.

The Fourth Recorded Passover Observation in the New Covenant (circa 30 A.D.) (6)
A large crowd was following him because they were observing the miraculous signs he was performing on the sick. So Jesus went on up the mountainside and sat down there with his disciples. (Now the Jewish feast of the Passover was near.) Then Jesus, when he looked up and saw that a large crowd was coming to him, said to Philip, “Where can we buy bread so that these people may eat?” (Now Jesus said this to test him, for he knew what he was going to do.) (John 6:2–6 NET) 
The Fifth Recorded Passover Observation in the New Covenant (circa 31 A.D.) (6)
Now the Jewish feast of Passover was near, and many people went up to Jerusalem from the rural areas before the Passover to cleanse themselves ritually. Thus they were looking for Jesus, and saying to one another as they stood in the temple courts, “What do you think? That he won’t come to the feast?” (Now the chief priests and the Pharisees had given orders that anyone who knew where Jesus was should report it, so that they could arrest him.) (John 11:55–57 NET)

Additionally, the feast of Unleavened Bread is mentioned in Mark 14:1 and records Jesus’ observance of this feast. (2)

Two days before the Passover and the Feast of Unleavened Bread, the chief priests and the experts in the law were trying to find a way to arrest Jesus by stealth and kill him. For they said, “Not during the feast, so there won’t be a riot among the people.” (Mark 14:1–2 NET)
Now on the first day of the feast of Unleavened Bread, when the Passover lamb is sacrificed, Jesus’ disciples said to him, “Where do you want us to prepare for you to eat the Passover?” (Mark 14:12 NET)(cf. Matthew 26:17. Luke 22:1,7) 


God the Father sent Joseph to Supply Physical Bread to Save the World from Physical Death Approximately 2000 years Earlier (Circa 1899 B.C.)

Joseph is the beloved son (Genesis 37:3) (15)

Joseph was given a special name (Genesis 37:2) meaning: may God add; he shall add; increasing; (14) abundance; a multiplier (15)

Joseph testified against the world that its deeds are evil (Genesis 37:2)

Joseph was given special recognition by his father (Genesis 37:3)

Joseph told his brethren of His future dominion, and he and his Father were hated for it by them; in their arrogance, they did not desire his leadership (Genesis 37:4-11)

Joseph was sent by His Father on behalf of his brethren and went to them willingly (Genesis 37:13,14)

Joseph’s brethren, the ones He was sent on behalf of, conspired to have him killed (Genesis 37:18)

Joseph was stripped out of his seamless robe. (Genesis 37:23)

Joseph was cast into a pit (Genesis 37:24)

Joseph was sold into captivity in exchange for pieces of silver (Genesis 37:28)

Joseph was slain (in his father’s eyes) as evidenced by blood (Genesis 37:31-33)

Joseph is exalted (Genesis 41:38-44)

Joseph is given a new name (Genesis 41:45): Zaphnathpaaneah [Zaphnath-Paneah] (zaf’-nath-pa-a-ne’-ah) = Savior of the age; Savior of the world; giver of the nourishment of life; prince of the life of the age; revealer of a secret. (17)

Joseph is given a Gentile bride (Genesis 41:45)

Joseph provides bread without measure for the dying world (Genesis 41:49. Genesis 41:55-57)



The Sixth Passover-Feast of Unleavened Bread Observed in the New Covenant (circa 44 A.D.) (6)
About that time King Herod laid hands on some from the church to harm them.He had James, the brother of John, executed with a sword. When he saw that this pleased the Jews, he proceeded to arrest Peter too. (This took place during the feast of Unleavened Bread.)When he had seized him, he put him in prison, handing him over to four squads of soldiers to guard him. Herod planned to bring him out for public trial after the Passover. (Acts 12:1–4 NET)
The Seventh Passover-Feast of Unleavened Bread Observed in the New Covenant (circa 54 A.D.) (6)
Paul was accompanied by Sopater son of Pyrrhus from Berea, Aristarchus and Secundus from Thessalonica, Gaius from Derbe, and Timothy, as well as Tychicus and Trophimus from the province of Asia. These had gone on ahead and were waiting for us in Troas. We sailed away from Philippi after the days of Unleavened Bread, and within five days we came to the others in Troas, where we stayed for seven days. (Acts 20:4–6 NET)
The Eighth Passover-Feast of Unleavened Bread Observed in the New Covenant (circa 54 A.D.) (6)
Paul was accompanied by Sopater son of Pyrrhus from Berea, Aristarchus and Secundus from Thessalonica, Gaius from Derbe, and Timothy, as well as Tychicus and Trophimus from the province of Asia. These had gone on ahead and were waiting for us in Troas. We sailed away from Philippi after the days of Unleavened Bread, and within five days we came to the others in Troas, where we stayed for seven days. (Acts 20:4–6 NET)

Typological Meaning of the Feast of Unleavened Bread

The Feast of Unleavened Bread teaches the concept of being in fellowship with the Lord. The Lord has always sought to have fellowship with us rather than the other way around. It all became quite evident from the very beginning with Adam in the Garden of Eden from the events that took place right after the first couple sinned: (13)

Then the man and his wife heard the sound of the Lord God moving about in the orchard at the breezy time of the day, and they hid from the Lord God among the trees of the orchard. But the Lord God called to the man and said to him, “Where are you?” (Genesis 3:8,9 NET)

We see that God was the one who was seeking fellowship. Later in history, we learn that the Lord was still seeking the fellowship of mankind when He was encouraging the Jews to hurry up and finish the building of the temple. The first thing God said through the prophet Zechariah was: (13)

Therefore say to the people: The Lord who rules over all says, “Turn to me,” says the Lord who rules over all, “and I will turn to you,” says the Lord who rules over all. (Zechariah 1:3 NET)

He was saying in effect, “Hurry up, for I am moving into the neighborhood to have fellowship with you!” (13)

As we’ve learned, the Hebrews were to keep this feast with unleavened bread. In later times, the rabbis added the rule that food could only be eaten during this feast if the food was cooked before the leavening process even began. It was determined that it took 18 minutes from the time the wheat is mixed with water until the time the yeast in the wheat begins to ferment. (3)

The baking of the Passover matzah requires close supervision in order to meet the rigid requirements of the rabbis. Anyone who has eaten this specially prepared unleavened “bread of affliction” can’t help but notice that it is bruised, striped, and pierced. The connection to Jesus is obvious. (3)

Jesus fulfilled this feast as the “Bread of Life” from Heaven who had no leaven (sin) in Him. Because of the fermenting and permeating nature of leaven, it is often used as a metaphor for sin. There was no leaven of sin in Jesus. (3)

Paul wrote:

God made the one who did not know sin to be sin for us, so that in him we would become the righteousness of God. (2 Corinthians 5:21 NET)

John declared:

And you know that Jesus was revealed to take away sins, and in him there is no sin. (1 John 3:5 NET)

The prophet Isaiah gave us a preview of the Messiah who would be smitten, bruised, and pierced for our sins.

But he lifted up our illnesses, he carried our pain; even though we thought he was being punished, attacked by God, and afflicted for something he had done. He was wounded because of our rebellious deeds, crushed because of our sins; he endured punishment that made us well; because of his wounds we have been healed. (Isaiah 53:4–5 NET)
He was led away after an unjust trial— but who even cared? Indeed, he was cut off from the land of the living; because of the rebellion of his own people he was wounded. They intended to bury him with criminals, but he ended up in a rich man’s tomb, because he had committed no violent deeds, nor had he spoken deceitfully. Though the Lord desired to crush him and make him ill, once restitution is made, he will see descendants and enjoy long life, and the Lord’s purpose will be accomplished through him. (Isaiah 53:8–10 NET)

Jesus pointed to Himself as the fulfillment of this feast the very week it was being celebrated in Jerusalem. Many Jews had come to Jerusalem to celebrate the feast according to God’s command in Exodus 23:14-17 and Deuteronomy 16:16. (3)

A huge crowd of these pilgrims had heard about Jesus and were following Him wherever He went. But a problem developed. The crowd was hungry, and there was nothing to eat. Jesus took this opportunity to perform a miracle that would point the people to Himself as the true bread of life. (3)

Jesus used this opportunity to test His disciples. He asked Philip how they could feed all the hungry people. Philip had no ideas. Then another disciple, Andrew, brought a young boy to Jesus who had five loaves of barley and two fish. (This was during the barley harvest, and barley was the bread of the poor. The poor lad was willing to give all that he had to Jesus.) This was clearly an inadequate solution to the problem. However, Jesus took the boy’s lunch, blessed His heavenly Father for the food, and then multiplied it so that there was enough to feed 5,000 men, plus the women and children, and have some leftover (see John 6:2-15). (3)

A large crowd was following him because they were observing the miraculous signs he was performing on the sick. So Jesus went on up the mountainside and sat down there with his disciples. (Now the Jewish feast of the Passover was near.)Then Jesus, when he looked up and saw that a large crowd was coming to him, said to Philip, “Where can we buy bread so that these people may eat?” (Now Jesus said this to test him, for he knew what he was going to do.) Philip replied, “Two hundred silver coins worth of bread would not be enough for them, for each one to get a little.” One of Jesus’ disciples, Andrew, Simon Peter’s brother, said to him, “Here is a boy who has five barley loaves and two fish, but what good are these for so many people?” Jesus said, “Have the people sit down.” (Now there was a lot of grass in that place.) So the men sat down, about five thousand in number. Then Jesus took the loaves, and when he had given thanks, he distributed the bread to those who were seated. He then did the same with the fish, as much as they wanted. When they were all satisfied, Jesus said to his disciples, “Gather up the broken pieces that are left over, so that nothing is wasted.” So they gathered them up and filled twelve baskets with broken pieces from the five barley loaves left over by the people who had eaten. Now when the people saw the miraculous sign that Jesus performed, they began to say to one another, “This is certainly the Prophet who is to come into the world.”Then Jesus, because he knew they were going to come and seize him by force to make him king, withdrew again up the mountainside alone. (John 6:2–15 NET)

Jesus then used this miracle as a sign to tell the people of their need to come to Him as the true bread of God who would give them eternal life. John was an eyewitness and gave the following account: (3)

Then Jesus told them, “I tell you the solemn truth, it is not Moses who has given you the bread from heaven, but my Father is giving you the true bread from heaven. For the bread of God is the one who comes down from heaven and gives life to the world.” So they said to him, “Sir, give us this bread all the time!” Jesus said to them, “I am the bread of life. The one who comes to me will never go hungry, and the one who believes in me will never be thirsty. (John 6:32–35 NET)

When the people heard Jesus speak, they murmured against Him. However, Jesus would not back down from His claims. He repeated Himself with great boldness and clarity: (3)

I tell you the solemn truth, the one who believes has eternal life. I am the bread of life. Your ancestors ate the manna in the wilderness, and they died. This is the bread that has come down from heaven, so that a person may eat from it and not die. I am the living bread that came down from heaven. If anyone eats from this bread he will live forever. The bread that I will give for the life of the world is my flesh.” (John 6:47–51 NET)

The people murmured again and argued among themselves over Jesus’ sayings. Once again, Jesus pressed His point as John recorded: (3)

Jesus said to them, “I tell you the solemn truth, unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink his blood, you have no life in yourselves. The one who eats my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life, and I will raise him up on the last day. For my flesh is true food, and my blood is true drink. The one who eats my flesh and drinks my blood resides in me, and I in him. Just as the living Father sent me, and I live because of the Father, so the one who consumes me will live because of me. This is the bread that came down from heaven; it is not like the bread your ancestors ate, but then later died. The one who eats this bread will live forever.” (John 6:53–58 NET) (3)

In the Passover article (1), we learned that Jesus was crucified on Wednesday the 14th of Nisan. We also noted that His body was taken down just before six o’clock that evening, which would begin the next day (the 15th). From this, we realize that Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus prepared Jesus’ body for burial and placed Him in Joseph’s tomb just in time for Jesus to be buried on the 15th, which was the first day of the Feast of Unleavened Bread. (3) (See “Timeline of our Lord’s Passion Week and Feast of Unleavened Bread” immediately below and The Seven Feasts of Israel – Passover (1) for a thorough discussion of this timeline)

Timeline of our Lord’s Passion Week, Passover, Feast of Unleavened Bread and Firstfruits

Jesus, the unleavened bread of God from Heaven, took on all our leaven of sin and was buried on the same day the Jews had been celebrating the feast for centuries. What the Jews had been portraying in the Feast of Unleavened Bread was a visual aid pointing them to Messiah Jesus who had come and fulfilled in His flesh the reality pictured by the feast. While the Jewish people were removing the physical leaven from their houses, Jesus removed the spiritual leaven of sin from our house—that is, our life. (3)

Jesus took our leaven of sin in His spirit, our leaven of sorrows in His soul, and our leaven of sickness, disease, and death in His body. He who knew no leaven (sin, sickness, and death) became leaven for us. Our worldly attitudes and sinful ways were buried with Him. The bondage, oppression, sorrow, and suffering that were part of our old life went with Him into the grave. He took the full burden of all the liabilities of our human condition with Him. (3)

Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus were important members of the Jewish Supreme Court (the Sanhedrin). They took Jesus’ body and wrapped it in linen bands with a mixture of myrrh and aloes weighing about 100 pounds. The amount of spices used to anoint the body was a measure of the value of the deceased. Rabbi Gamaliel was a contemporary of Jesus. When he died, his body was anointed with eighty pounds of spices. (3)

It was the custom for the body to be washed and straightened, and then bandaged tightly from the armpits to the ankles in strips of linen about a foot wide. Aromatic spices, often of a gummy consistency, were placed between the wrappings. They served partially as a preservative and partially as a cement to glue the cloth wrappings into a solid covering. The face was left uncovered, but a cloth was wrapped around the head of the dead body. (3)

Aloe was a fragrant wood that had been pounded or in some other way reduced to dust. The myrrh was an aromatic gum that was mixed with the powdered wood. We might think of myrrh as the “first-century superglue.” When mixed together, the dry aloe would stick to the body so that Jesus’ body was embedded in the powdered spice. (3)

The body lay with its face turned upwards and its hands folded on the chest. The face, neck, and upper shoulders were left bare. The head would have rested on a raised portion of the ledge, which served as a pillow. Because Jesus’ body was hurriedly prepared for the tomb, there was no time for an elaborate burial. Later, after the weekly Sabbath, the women would come to anoint His face, neck, and shoulders. (3)

Before He was crucified, Jesus was beaten so badly one could hardly recognize Him as a man (see Isaiah 52:14). He hung on the cross for six hours, bearing the consequences of our sins. He was wrapped up like a mummy and covered with 100 pounds of spices. Then Joseph rolled a large stone in front of the tomb (see Matthew 27:59-60). Some ancient writings say this stone was so large that it would take at least twenty men to roll it away. Finally, the tomb was secured by stretching a cord across the stone and sealed at each end with a Roman seal. Jesus lay inside with our sins, sorrows, sicknesses, and diseases buried with Him. This is how Jesus fulfilled (was the spiritual reality and human embodiment of) the Feast of Unleavened Bread. (3)

While Passover itself was fulfilled by the death of the Messiah, the Feast of Unleavened Bread is fulfilled by the sinlessness of His blood-offering, according to Hebrews 9:11–10:18. In this passage, His offering of sinless blood accomplished three things: first, the cleansing of the heavenly tabernacle; secondly, the removal of the sins of the Old Testament saints; and thirdly, the application of the blood to the New Testament saints. (10)



God the Father sent Jesus to Supply Spiritual Bread to Save the World from Spiritual Death

Jesus is the beloved son (Matthew 3:17;17:5) ) (15)

Jesus (Hb., Yeshua) was given a special name (Matthew 1:21) meaning: God is Salvation, Savior (14)

Jesus testified against the world that its deeds are evil (John 7:7)

Jesus was given special recognition by His Father (Matthew 3:16)

Jesus told his brethren of His future dominion, and he and his Father were hated for it by them; in their arrogance, they did not desire his leadership (Matthew 26:64-66. Matthew 27:18. John 1:11. John 15:24. Luke 19:14)

Jesus was sent by His Father on behalf of His brethren and went to them willingly (1 John 4:10. Hebrews 10:9)

Jesus’ brethren, the ones He was sent on behalf of, conspired to have Him killed (Matthew 26:3,4)

Jesus was stripped out of his seamless robe. (Matthew 27:26-29)

Jesus was sold into captivity in exchange for pieces of silver (Matthew 26:14,15)

Jesus was cast into a pit (Matthew 12:39,40. Acts 2:24-28. Romans 10:7,8)

Jesus was slain as evidenced by blood (John 19:33,34)

Jesus is exalted (Acts 5:31. Hebrews 1:1-12. 1 Peter 3:21,22)

Jesus is given a new name (Ephesians 1:20,21. Philippians 2:9-11. Revelation 19:12)

Jesus is given a Gentile (and Jewish) Bride (Ephesians 5:23-25)

Jesus provides bread without measure for the dying world (John 6:35,48,51. Acts 4:12)



Finely Sifted (Wheat) Flour

Wheat, Wheat Kernels, and Wheat Flour

The grain offering was to be made of “fine flour.”  In order to make coarse grain into fine flour, you must pound, grind, and sift it repeatedly. Usually, when a loaf of bread is made leaven is added so that it will rise.  After the dough is allowed to rise, it is then punched down, kneaded, shaped into a loaf, and then put into the oven to bake.  After baking it becomes bread for consumption.

When Jesus was on the cross, our sins, our “leaven,” were placed on Him like a garment.  Jesus was beaten, punched to become fine flour, and then placed in God’s furnace of misery; the cross where he suffered God’s judgment in payment for all our sin and sins.  In doing so, He became the Bread of Life!

Look, I have refined you, but not as silver; I have purified you in the furnace of misery. (Isaiah 48:10 NET)
I am the living bread that came down from heaven. If anyone eats from this bread he will live forever. The bread that I will give for the life of the world is my flesh.” (John 6:51 NET) 
I am speaking to thoughtful people. Consider what I say. Is not the cup of blessing that we bless a sharing in the blood of Christ? Is not the bread that we break a sharing in the body of Christ? Because there is one bread, we who are many are one body, for we all share the one bread. (1 Corinthians 10:15–17 NET)

Olive Oil

The bread dough was to be mixed with olive oil (1), beaten, pounded into the desired shape, and baked in an oven. If it was an unleavened “cake,” it was to be “mixed with oil”.  If it was an “unleavened wafer”, it was to be “anointed” with oil.

Mixed with oil is a picture of Jesus who was born without sin and full of the Holy Spirit. Jesus was “anointed with oil,” upon coming up out of the waters after being baptized by John. At that time, The Holy Spirit rested ON HIM (poured over Him as oil) without measure. 

You love justice and hate evil. For this reason God, your God has anointed you with the oil of joy, elevating you above your companions. (Psalm 45:7 NET)
You have loved righteousness and hated lawlessness. So God, your God, has anointed you over your companions with the oil of rejoicing.” (Hebrews 1:9 NET)
And the disciples were filled with joy and with the Holy Spirit. (Acts 13:52 NET)

Frankincense

Frankincense is used for incense and perfume as it has a sweet smell. Paul alludes to a fragrant offering figuratively in the New Covenant.

For I have received everything, and I have plenty. I have all I need because I received from Epaphroditus what you sent—a fragrant offering, an acceptable sacrifice, very pleasing to God. And my God will supply your every need according to his glorious riches in Christ Jesus. May glory be given to God our Father forever and ever. Amen. (Philippians 4:18–20 NET)

Frankincense is tapped from the scraggly but hardy trees by slashing the bark, which is called striping, and allowing the exuded resin to bleed out and harden. These hardened resins are called Frankincense tears

This depicts the horrendous torture He suffered by slashings and stripes from the whippings and beatings before He suffered the most disgraceful death of crucifixion. Furthermore, it represents what Jesus is doing for us in the present role as our Great High Priest and Covenant Mediator.

Therefore since we have a great high priest who has passed through the heavens, Jesus the Son of God, let us hold fast to our confession. For we do not have a high priest incapable of sympathizing with our weaknesses, but one who has been tempted in every way just as we are, yet without sin. Therefore let us confidently approach the throne of grace to receive mercy and find grace whenever we need help. (Hebrews 4:14–16 NET)

The Old Leaven of the Kingdom of Darkness

Leaven

No grain offering, that would be offered on the altar, could contain leaven or yeast.

“ ‘No grain offering which you present to the Lord can be made with yeast, for you must not offer up in smoke any yeast or honey as a gift to the Lord. You can present them to the Lord as an offering of first fruit, but they must not go up to the altar for a soothing aroma. (Leviticus 2:11–12 NET)

Generally, leaven represents sin in the Bible. Consequently, most offerings contained no leaven because unleavened bread represented Jesus in His perfect, sinless life in the flesh.  Jesus committed no sin (1 Peter 2:22), had no sin within Himself (1 John 3:5), and never knew sin (2 Corinthians 5:21); therefore, He being without blemish and spot qualified to be our sacrificial offering (1 Peter 1:19).

Jesus warned his disciples of three dangerous forms of leaven:

The Pharisaical Leaven of Hypocrisy

Meanwhile, when many thousands of the crowd had gathered so that they were trampling on one another, Jesus began to speak first to his disciples, “Be on your guard against the yeast of the Pharisees, which is hypocrisy. (Luke 12:1 NET)

The term hypocrite originated in Greek drama and means to “put on the face.”  The hypocrite was an actor in a play. He pretended to be something that he was not. The Pharisee pretended to be spiritual as he paraded his giving, praying, and fasting (Matthew 6). They were actors on the stage of life! All of their good works were done to be “seen of men” (Matthew 23:5). Christ warned his disciples to “beware” of this leaven by making sure their inside was as good as their outside:

Then Jesus said to the crowds and to his disciples, “The experts in the law and the Pharisees sit on Moses’ seat. Therefore pay attention to what they tell you and do it. But do not do what they do, for they do not practice what they teach. They tie up heavy loads, hard to carry, and put them on men’s shoulders, but they themselves are not willing even to lift a finger to move them. They do all their deeds to be seen by people, for they make their phylacteries wide and their tassels long. They love the place of honor at banquets and the best seats in the synagoguesand elaborate greetings in the marketplaces, and to have people call them ‘Rabbi.’ (Matthew 23:1–7 NET)
“Woe to you, experts in the law and you Pharisees, hypocrites! You clean the outside of the cup and the dish, but inside they are full of greed and self-indulgence. Blind Pharisee! First clean the inside of the cup, so that the outside may become clean too! “Woe to you, experts in the law and you Pharisees, hypocrites! You are like whitewashed tombs that look beautiful on the outside but inside are full of the bones of the dead and of everything unclean. In the same way, on the outside you look righteous to people, but inside you are full of hypocrisy and lawlessness. (Matthew 23:25–28 NET)

The Pharisees created laws contrary to God’s Word to benefit themselves and used them to control the people.

Hypocrites! Isaiah prophesied correctly about you when he said, ‘This people honors me with their lips, but their heart is far from me, and they worship me in vain, teaching as doctrines the commandments of men.’ ” (Matthew 15:7–9 NET)
Thus you nullify the word of God by your tradition that you have handed down. And you do many things like this.” (Mark 7:13 NET)

The Liberal Leaven of the Sadducee

“Watch out,” Jesus said to them, “beware of the yeast of the Pharisees and Sadducees.” (Matthew 16:6 NET)

The Sadducees were the major ruling religious party of Christ’s day. They were very liberal with their handling of scripture, interjecting their own human reasoning into its interpretation. They thought that the archaic writings of scripture needed to be brought up to date with modern understanding.

They proposed a parable to Jesus in Matthew 22:23-30 to prove in their minds that there couldn’t possibly be any resurrection of the dead. “A woman married and was widowed seven times by seven brethren. In the resurrection, whose wife would she be?” Jesus simply corrected their reasoning with Scripture and told them they erred in two ways:

Jesus answered them, “You are deceived, because you don’t know the scriptures or the power of God. (Matthew 22:29 NET)
  • Not knowing the Scripture – When the leaven of liberalism sets in, emphasis on the teaching, preaching, reading, memorizing, and studying Scripture is left off, causing God’s people to perish (Hosea 4:6).
  • Not knowing the Power of God – The power of God is only known by believing in the Word of God. When you leave the ministry of the Word, you leave off the powerful object of our faith, the Word of God. (Hebrews 1:3. 1 Corinthians 2:4. 1 Thessalonians 1:5)
For I am not ashamed of the gospel, for it is God’s power for salvation to everyone who believes, to the Jew first and also to the Greek. For the righteousness of God is revealed in the gospel from faith to faith, just as it is written, “The righteous by faith will live.” (Romans 1:16–17 NET)
Consequently faith comes from what is heard, and what is heard comes through the preached word of Christ. (Romans 10:17 NET)
Now without faith it is impossible to please him, for the one who approaches God must believe that he exists and that he rewards those who seek him. (Hebrews 11:6 NET)

To purge out the leaven of liberalism in our lives, we need only to ask ourselves if we are obeying:

Trust in the Lord with all your heart, and do not rely on your own understanding. (Proverbs 3:5 NET)

The Worldly Leaven of Herod

And Jesus ordered them, “Watch out! Beware of the yeast of the Pharisees and the yeast of Herod!” (Mark 8:15 NET)

Herod the Great was the great builder of Israel and the darling of Rome. Herod’s followers the Herodians were wholly given to the Greek culture, the Roman power, and the politics of the times. They tried to trap Jesus by asking, “Is it lawful to give unto Caesar?” (Mark 12:14-17) “This present world”, in every age, has had its allures. Jesus knew his disciples were going to be tempted by the leaven of worldliness, and he prayed the following to His Father:

I am not asking you to take them out of the world, but that you keep them safe from the evil one. (John 17:15 NET)
If you belonged to the world, the world would love you as its own. However, because you do not belong to the world, but I chose you out of the world, for this reason the world hates you. (John 15:19 NET)

We are also instructed to be in the world but not of the world, not conformed to it.

Therefore I exhort you, brothers and sisters, by the mercies of God, to present your bodies as a sacrifice—alive, holy, and pleasing to God—which is your reasonable service. Do not be conformed to this present world, but be transformed by the renewing of your mind, so that you may test and approve what is the will of God—what is good and well-pleasing and perfect. (Romans 12:1,2 NET)

We are definitely not to be in love with the world.

Do not love the world or the things in the world. If anyone loves the world, the love of the Father is not in him, because all that is in the world (the desire of the flesh and the desire of the eyes and the arrogance produced by material possessions) is not from the Father, but is from the world. And the world is passing away with all its desires, but the person who does the will of God remains forever. (1 John 2:15–17 NET)
Adulterers, do you not know that friendship with the world means hostility toward God? So whoever decides to be the world’s friend makes himself God’s enemy. (James 4:4 NET)

Every believer has to make their decision to either chose God or the god of this world:

“No one can serve two masters, for either he will hate the one and love the other, or he will be devoted to the one and despise the other. You cannot serve God and money. (Matthew 6:24 NET)

Beware of the leaven of Herod by considering what happened to the apostle Paul’s hand-picked disciple, whose Christianity by appearance probably would have put ours to shame:

For Demas deserted me, since he loved the present age, and he went to Thessalonica. Crescens went to Galatia and Titus to Dalmatia. (2 Timothy 4:10 NET)

The Common Sin of the Three Leavens

The three leavens are commonly rooted in the sin of unbelief or the lack of faith as seen in the Pharisees, Sadducees, and Herod that polluted their teaching and lifestyle.

But the man who doubts is condemned if he eats, because he does not do so from faith, and whatever is not from faith is sin. (Romans 14:23 NET)

The Scribes, Pharisees, and Sadducees were jealous of Jesus and routinely attempted to entrap Him with their questions. They had no faith in Him, the living Word of God, or His words. They did not have God’s love in their hearts (John 5:42) and could not discern the times or who He was as faith works through love (Galatians 5:6). Rather than believing that Jesus was the promised Messiah by what He said and did in fulfillment of prophecies (Luke 7:20-23), they wanted a sign, a “magic show.” Jesus only gave them the sign of the prophet Jonah:

But he answered them, “An evil and adulterous generation asks for a sign, but no sign will be given to it except the sign of the prophet Jonah. For just as Jonah was in the belly of the huge fish for three days and three nights, so the Son of Man will be in the heart of the earth for three days and three nights. (Matthew 12:39–40 NET)
Now when the Pharisees and Sadducees came to test Jesus, they asked him to show them a sign from heaven. He said, “When evening comes you say, ‘It will be fair weather, because the sky is red,’ and in the morning, ‘It will be stormy today, because the sky is red and darkening.’ You know how to judge correctly the appearance of the sky, but you cannot evaluate the signs of the times. A wicked and adulterous generation asks for a sign, but no sign will be given to it except the sign of Jonah.” Then he left them and went away. (Matthew 16:1–4 NET)

After this confrontation, Jesus immediately left and went across the lake with His disciples. The disciples became anxious about how they would provide food to feed His followers. Recall they had witnessed Jesus’ miracle of the multiplication of the bread on two previous occasions, once for Jews (i.e., the feeding of the 5000, Matthew 14:13-21. Mark 6:30-44. Luke 9:10-17. John 6:1-13) and the other time for Gentiles (i.e., the feeding of the 4000, Matthew 15:32. Mark 8:1-3). Jesus attempted to help them see their “lack of faith” and used the recent confrontation with the Sadducees and Pharisees and their “lack of faith” with the two feedings to provide a case study.

When the disciples went to the other side, they forgot to take bread. “Watch out,” Jesus said to them, “beware of the yeast of the Pharisees and Sadducees.” So they began to discuss this among themselves, saying, “It is because we brought no bread.” When Jesus learned of this, he said, “You who have such little faith! Why are you arguing among yourselves about having no bread? Do you still not understand? Don’t you remember the five loaves for the five thousand, and how many baskets you took up? Or the seven loaves for the four thousand and how many baskets you took up? How could you not understand that I was not speaking to you about bread? But beware of the yeast of the Pharisees and Sadducees!” Then they understood that he had not told them to be on guard against the yeast in bread, but against the teaching of the Pharisees and Sadducees. (Matthew 16:5–12 NET)

Jesus warned the disciples to guard against the leaven or teaching of the Pharisees and Sadducees’ because it was not based on faith and therefore is sin. (Romans 14:23). Jesus instructed the disciples that they needed to have faith in Him and His words without the impurity of a lack of faith. The teaching of the Pharisees and Sadducees removed faith from the people because, like leaven, it permeated throughout the truth that came from what Jesus taught, the true bread from Heaven.

A little yeast makes the whole batch of dough rise! (Galatians 5:9 NET)
Your boasting is not good. Don’t you know that a little yeast affects the whole batch of dough? Clean out the old yeast so that you may be a new batch of dough—you are, in fact, without yeast. For Christ, our Passover lamb, has been sacrificed. So then, let us celebrate the festival, not with the old yeast, the yeast of vice and evil, but with the bread without yeast, the bread of sincerity and truth. (1 Corinthians 5:6–8 NET)
 

The Apostle Paul, like Jesus, was not talking about physical bread, but rather that we are to live a life filled with God’s truth received in faith.

Salt

Dead Sea Salt
Moreover, you must season every one of your grain offerings with salt; you must not allow the salt of the covenant of your God to be missing from your grain offering—on every one of your grain offerings you must present salt. (Leviticus 2:13 NET)

All grain offering were required to have salt added to them.

According to the Babylonian Talmud the salt used in the service of the temple must come from Sodom (the Dead Sea area):

III:2: Nor shall you allow salt to be lacking:” Since the word for “be lacking” uses the same consonants as those in the word Sabbath, the meaning is: produce salt that has no Sabbath but is produced winter and summer, and what is that? It is salt from Sodom. (XIV)

Since salt was regarded in the ancient Near East as not being destructible by fire, “a covenant of salt” seems to refer to an eternal covenant (Numbers 18:19; 2 Chronicles 13:5) (XIII)

Salt has the following characteristics:

Salt Preserves – many of the disciples Jesus called were fishermen and were well aware of the ability of salt to preserve caught fish and thus keep them from spoiling.

As he went along the Sea of Galilee, he saw Simon and Andrew, Simon’s brother, casting a net into the sea (for they were fishermen). Jesus said to them, “Follow me, and I will turn you into fishers of people.”They left their nets immediately and followed him. Going on a little farther, he saw James, the son of Zebedee, and John his brother in their boat mending nets. Immediately he called them, and they left their father Zebedee in the boat with the hired men and followed him. (Mark 1:16–20 NET)

Salt stands for permanence and incorruptibility. Thus when salt is used in a “covenant of salt,” it always signifies an everlasting covenant, with the salt being an emblem or symbol of perpetuity. The use of salt in an offering would therefore signify the everlasting relation between God and His people—they everlastingly belong to Him, and He everlastingly belongs to them. For this reason, salt and permanence were always associated in a covenant; 2 Chronicles 13:5 states: “Don’t you know that the LORD, the God of Israel, has given the kingship of Israel to David and his descendants forever by a covenant of salt?” (XV)

Salt Flavors – salt is added to food to bring out its flavor. Salt can turn bland food into savory!

Can food that is tasteless be eaten without salt? Or is there any taste in the white of an egg? (Job 6:6 NET)

Salt Heals – in Biblical times salt was rubbed on newborn babies due to salt’s antiseptic properties.

The men of the city said to Elisha, “Look, the city has a good location, as our master can see. But the water is bad and the land doesn’t produce crops.”Elisha said, “Get me a new jar and put some salt in it.” So they got it. He went out to the spring and threw the salt in. Then he said, “This is what the Lord says, ‘I have purified this water. It will no longer cause death or fail to produce crops.”The water has been pure to this very day, just as Elisha prophesied. (2 Kings 2:19–22 NET)

Salt Penetrates – a small amount of salt in a bottle of water will be nearly instantly salty throughout.

Salt represented the permanence of the covenant that the Israelites had just entered into with the Lord (Exod. 20–24). By requiring the Israelites to add salt to their offerings, the Lord provided a way for them constantly to affirm their covenant relationship with him. This affirmation would have greatly encouraged the people, by reminding them of the Lord’s steadfast commitment to be their covenant King. They especially needed this encouragement as they prepared to enter the Promised Land and establish God’s kingdom there. Only the presence of their covenant King in their midst could give them confidence in the success of their mission. (It is no different for the Christian today; this is no doubt why Jesus assures us of his presence when giving us our covenant mission; Matt. 28:18–20.) As well as being an encouragement, the requirement of the salt of the covenant served to remind the Israelites of their covenant obligations. The Lord had chosen them to be ‘a kingdom of priests and a holy nation’ (Exod. 19:6), and the covenant laws he had given them had to be followed in order to show to the nations the Lord’s wisdom, righteousness and holiness (1) (Lev. 20:24b–26; Deut. 4:5–8). (III)

Jesus picks up on the same principle when he tells his disciples, ‘In the same way, let your light shine before others, that they may see your good deeds and glorify your Father in heaven’ (Matthew. 5:16). To follow the King’s commands is to reflect the King’s character. Believers are to do this in such a radical way that people end up knowing the King’s character by seeing how his servants live. (III)

Let your speech always be gracious, seasoned with salt, so that you may know how you should answer everyone. (Colossians 4:6 NET)
Therefore, having laid aside falsehood, each one of you speak the truth with his neighbor, for we are members of one another. (Ephesians 4:25 NET)
Salt is good, but if it loses its saltiness, how can you make it salty again? Have salt in yourselves, and be at peace with each other.” (Mark 9:50 NET)

Furthermore, Jesus equates being “salted with fire” with the growth in the fruit of the Spirit resulting from effectively suffering (1) for the Gospel’s sake.

Everyone will be salted with fire.(Mark 9:49 NET)
Dear friends, do not be astonished that a trial by fire is occurring among you, as though something strange were happening to you. But rejoice in the degree that you have shared in the sufferings of Christ, so that when his glory is revealed you may also rejoice and be glad. If you are insulted for the name of Christ, you are blessed, because the Spirit of glory, who is the Spirit of God, rests on you. But let none of you suffer as a murderer or thief or criminal or as a troublemaker. (1 Peter 4:12–15 NET)

Wine Libations

A libation is a drink offering, usually of wine, poured out upon an altar as part of a sacrificial ceremony. (XXI) Drink offerings were poured out on the Bronze Altar; however, drink offerings were prohibited from being poured out on the Golden Altar of Incense. (Exodus 30:9)

Drink offerings poured out on the Bronze Altar always consisted of wine. There was no substitute as it represented the fruit of the earth or a product of a person’s labor. The drink offering recognized God as Creator and Lord over all the earth. It was quantified in the Mosaic Law of sacrifices (Exodus 29:38-41. Leviticus 23:13. Numbers 15:3-10). (XII)

Levitical Requirements for Sacrifices and Offerings including the Drink Offering

After the sacrifice had been made in the Levitical law, then, as an extra offering, this libation, this drink, would be taken and poured upon the sacrifice. And when it was poured upon the sacrifice, the heat there in the altar and the flames would consume it and vaporize it, and it would be gone forever, never to be retrieved, never to be brought back. It would go into the presence of God. (XXII)

The drink offering typologically represents our complete dedication: a life poured out to the Lord Jesus Christ.

The Apostle Paul said it this way:

But even if I am being poured out like a drink offering on the sacrifice and service of your faith, I am glad and rejoice together with all of you. And in the same way you also should be glad and rejoice together with me. (Philippians 2:17,18 NET)

What Paul was saying is, I give my life upon the sacrifice of Jesus Christ. I pour it out, no holds barred, never hope to get it back, and no strings attached (1). (XXII)

Jesus said it this way:

For whoever wants to save his life will lose it, but whoever loses his life for my sake and for the gospel will save it. (Mark 8:35 NET)

It has been said,, “Finders keepers; losers weepers.” But Jesus says, “Losers finders, keepers weepers.” “Whosoever shall lose his life for my sake and the gospel’s, the same shall [find] it.” (XXII)

Binding his foal to the vine and his donkey’s colt to the choice vine, he has washed his garments in wine and his vesture in the blood of grapes. (Genesis 49:11 NET)

On a deeper level, wine also represents blood, the essence of human life. Pouring wine upon the altar in sacrifice to God depicted a person’s total dedication—spirit, soul, and body. (XII)

for the life of every living thing is in the blood. So I myself have assigned it to you on the altar to make atonement for your lives, for the blood makes atonement by means of the life. (Leviticus 17:11 NET)
Indeed according to the law almost everything was purified with blood, and without the shedding of blood there is no forgiveness. (Hebrews 9:22 NET)

The blood of Jesus is conceptualized as wine poured out from a container. (XI)

And in the same way he took the cup after they had eaten, saying, “This cup that is poured out for you is the new covenant in my blood. (Luke 22:20 NET)
He said to them, “This is my blood, the blood of the covenant, that is poured out for many. (Mark 14:24 NET)
for this is my blood, the blood of the covenant, that is poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins. (Matthew 26:28 NET)

Later Paul would say:

For I am already being poured out as a drink offering, and the time of my departure has come. (2 Timothy 4:6 ESV)

Paul knew that atonement for his sins had been achieved through the blood of Jesus Christ (1). But as he languished in prison, perhaps he reflected on the meaning of his approaching death. He knew that his death was a freewill offering to God, an oblation of his life upon the altar. He sacrificed himself in the service of Christ, recognizing Him as sovereign over all creation. As a drink offering, Paul poured out the fruit of his labors and the essence of his life. (XII)



Application of the Feast of Unleavened Bread

The Feast of Unleavened Bread teaches about our burial with Jesus. This indicates we should live a life of separation from the attitudes and ways of the world. This involves our putting off the old man of sin, characterized by the works of the flesh. (3)

Believers are to live a sin-free life to maintain fellowship with God. This is done through the continual cleansing available to us by Christ’s blood:

But if we walk in the light as he himself is in the light, we have fellowship with one another and the blood of Jesus his Son cleanses us from all sin. (1 John 1:7 NET)

Realize, sin itself cannot break our fellowship with God, since Christ’s blood continually cleanses us from all sin. However, the denial, rationalization, or ignoring of sin revealed to us by the Holy Spirit causes us to lose our fellowship with God. (13)

If we say we do not bear the guilt of sin, we are deceiving ourselves and the truth is not in us. (1 John 1:8 NET)

Nevertheless, if we fall out of fellowship because we deny our sin and we later confess that sin, God restores our fellowship with Him . (13)

But if we confess our sins, he is faithful and righteous, forgiving us our sins and cleansing us from all unrighteousness. (1 John 1:9 NET)

The Apostle Paul explained that we believers are to “put off” the old leaven of sin that was crucified and buried with Jesus. (3)

You were taught with reference to your former way of life to lay aside the old man who is being corrupted in accordance with deceitful desires, to be renewed in the spirit of your mind, and to put on the new man who has been created in God’s image—in righteousness and holiness that comes from truth. (Ephesians 4:22–24 NET)

The old nature or old man that Paul is speaking of is what the Jews call our “evil impulse.” Christianity speaks of it as a sin nature inherited from Adam. This impulse or inclination toward sin keeps us from having an intimate relationship with God, brings sorrow and heartache to our soul, and brings disease and death to our body. As we can all attest, this old nature within us loves to sin. As long as it is the ruling force in our life, we will commit outward acts of sin. (3)

Jesus said it this way,

For from within, out of the human heart, come evil ideas, sexual immorality, theft, murder, adultery, greed, evil, deceit, debauchery, envy, slander, pride, and folly. All these evils come from within and defile a person.” (Mark 7:21–23 NET)

Jesus took this desire to sin with Him into the tomb. (3)

When Paul used the phrase “put off,” he was referring to a person taking off his or her garment. In Bible times, a person’s garment could represent the person. Today we say, “The clothes make the man (or woman).” Paul wants us to put off the “Lazarus grave clothes of the flesh,” which he describes in Galatians as the works of the flesh: (3)

“Now the works of the flesh are evident, which are: adultery, fornication, Now the works of the flesh are obvious: sexual immorality, impurity, depravity, idolatry, sorcery, hostilities, strife, jealousy, outbursts of anger, selfish rivalries, dissensions, factions, envying, murder, drunkenness, carousing, and similar things. I am warning you, as I had warned you before: Those who practice such things will not inherit the kingdom of God! (Galatians 5:19–21)

We are able to put off this old garment of the flesh because the old man of sin was buried with Jesus (1) in fulfillment of the Feast of Unleavened Bread. In this way, the power of sin over us has been broken. When we realize and understand this work of Jesus on our behalf, God begins to work changes in our life. He changes our condition. He changes our character. We are transformed more and more into the moral image and likeness of Jesus. This is how the Feast of Unleavened Bread as fulfilled in Jesus affects our moral and spiritual condition. (3)

God gave the Feast of Unleavened Bread as a visual aid or picture showing the Hebrews they were to be separate from Egypt. In the Bible, Egypt represents the world system in which we live. Its philosophies and ways are contrary to the Word of God. The Hebrews were to live differently once they were delivered from Egypt. Likewise, we who have been delivered from the world system through the blood of Jesus are to live a life separated from the attitudes and ways of the world. (3)

God has chosen us to be a people set apart and different from those around us. We are to be in the world but not of the world. This is the biblical meaning of the word “holy.” (3)

Remember Jesus said, “Beware of the leaven of the Pharisees.” (Matthew 16:6; Mark 8:15) Jesus said, “Beware of the leaven … of the Sadducees.” (Matthew 16:6) The Bible warns against the leaven of the Herodians. (Mark 8:15) The leaven of the Pharisees was legalism. The leaven of the Sadducees was modernism. The leaven of the Herodians was worldliness. But it all speaks of sin. Beware of leaven. Beware of sin. And so, once we get saved, we’re to live a separate life. (12)

What is the Lord telling us? You see, He is telling us that we’re to be clean, that we’re to be separate from sin, that it’s not just enough to be under the blood positionally, but that we are to walk in cleanliness practically, day by day. (12)

Paul expressed it this way to the Roman believers,

Therefore I exhort you, brothers and sisters, by the mercies of God, to present your bodies as a sacrifice—alive, holy, and pleasing to God—which is your reasonable service. Do not be conformed to this present world, but be transformed by the renewing of your mind, so that you may test and approve what is the will of God—what is good and well-pleasing and perfect. (Romans 12:1–2 NET)

John wrote,

Do not love the world or the things in the world. If anyone loves the world, the love of the Father is not in him, because all that is in the world (the desire of the flesh and the desire of the eyes and the arrogance produced by material possessions) is not from the Father, but is from the world. And the world is passing away with all its desires, but the person who does the will of God remains forever. (1 John 2:15–17 NET)

Peter said,

Dear friends, I urge you as foreigners and exiles to keep away from fleshly desires that do battle against the soul, and maintain good conduct among the non-Christians, so that though they now malign you as wrongdoers, they may see your good deeds and glorify God when he appears. (1 Peter 2:11–12 NET)

Paul instructed the believers at Corinth,

Therefore “come out from their midst, and be separate,” says the Lord, “and touch no unclean thing, and I will welcome you,and I will be a father to you, and you will be my sons and daughters,” says the All-Powerful Lord. (2 Corinthians 6:17–18 NET)

The Feasts of Unleavened Bread and Firstfruits represent God’s work in us by His Spirit that enables us to live this holy or separate life. The Bible calls this transforming work in God in us “sanctification.” (1 Thessalonians 4:3-4; 2 Thessalonians 2:13; 1 Peter 1:2.) This is a cooperative walk with God, whereby we allow Him to change us into the moral and spiritual likeness of Jesus. (3)

Paul expressed this process in these words: “

So then, my dear friends, just as you have always obeyed, not only in my presence but even more in my absence, continue working out your salvation with awe and reverence, for the one bringing forth in you both the desire and the effort—for the sake of his good pleasure—is God. (Philippians 2:12–13 NET)

The Feast of Passover is the first step in our walk with God. It relates to our position of justification. The Feast of Unleavened Bread symbolizes our next step. It relates to our condition of sanctification, which transforms our character. This spiritual work can be a reality in our lives because Jesus is the true unleavened Bread of God who took the leaven of our sins with Him to the grave. (3)

Again, the Messiah is represented as “our Passover” in 1 Corinthians 5:6–8, and two main things are emphasized:

Your boasting is not good. Don’t you know that a little yeast affects the whole batch of dough? Clean out the old yeast so that you may be a new batch of dough—you are, in fact, without yeast. For Christ, our Passover lamb, has been sacrificed. So then, let us celebrate the festival, not with the old yeast, the yeast of vice and evil, but with the bread without yeast, the bread of sincerity and truth. (1 Corinthians 5:6–8)

First, just like the Jews had to purge their homes of leaven, the believer is to purge his life of leaven, the symbol of sin. Paul says Christians must be as ruthless in expelling sin from their lives as the Jews are in throwing out leaven prior to Passover. (9)

The way that a believer purges his life of leaven individually is through repentance and confession. (10)

But if we confess our sins, he is faithful and righteous, forgiving us our sins and cleansing us from all unrighteousness. (1 John 1:9 NET)
Put yourselves to the test to see if you are in the faith; examine yourselves! Or do you not recognize regarding yourselves that Jesus Christ is in you—unless, indeed, you fail the test! (2 Corinthians 13:5 NET)

Second, in the context of 1 Corinthians 5:6-8, the application is specific to sin in the assembly of the local church. When one receives Yeshua (Jesus) as his Passover sacrifice, he is born again into God’s family. Born again into God’s family means that he can never fall out of that particular family. However, as in any family, fellowship within that family can be broken by sin. The means of purging leaven in the local church is by means of church discipline which includes confession.

In addition, Paul warned against OLD leaven which could permeate and corrupt a local church congregation:

For freedom Christ has set us free. Stand firm, then, and do not be subject again to the yoke of slavery. Listen! I, Paul, tell you that if you let yourselves be circumcised, Christ will be of no benefit to you at all! And I testify again to every man who lets himself be circumcised that he is obligated to obey the whole law. You who are trying to be declared righteous by the law have been alienated from Christ; you have fallen away from grace! For through the Spirit, by faith, we wait expectantly for the hope of righteousness. For in Christ Jesus neither circumcision nor uncircumcision carries any weight—the only thing that matters is faith working through love. You were running well; who prevented you from obeying the truth? This persuasion does not come from the one who calls you! A little yeast makes the whole batch of dough rise! I am confident in the Lord that you will accept no other view. But the one who is confusing you will pay the penalty, whoever he may be. Now, brothers and sisters, if I am still preaching circumcision, why am I still being persecuted? In that case the offense of the cross has been removed. I wish those agitators would go so far as to castrate themselves! (Galatians 5:1–12 NET)

Jesus also used the NEW leaven as a metaphor for how the Gospel will start out small but eventually fill every corner of the earth before He returns.

Again he said, “To what should I compare the kingdom of God?It is like yeast that a woman took and mixed with three measures of flour until all the dough had risen.” (Luke 13:20,21 NET) 
And this gospel of the kingdom will be preached throughout the whole inhabited earth as a testimony to all the nations, and then the end will come. (Matthew 24:14 NET)

Realize, while Leaven (Hebrew, chametz) is prohibited from most of the offerings and sacrifices, it is an integral part of the ring-shaped bread in the Peace Offering (1) that is motivated by Thanksgiving, and the Two Loaves of Bread waved during the Feast of Weeks.

Rest then Work

We look again at the first and last day of the feasts of Unleavened Bread. They are to be days that are marked with no work but rather rest.

On the first day there will be a holy convocation, and on the seventh day there will be a holy convocation for you. You must do no work of any kind on them, only what every person will eat—that alone may be prepared for you.(Exodus 12:16 NET)

That is, we first rest, feeding upon the Lamb of God, and then we work. This means that it is all of grace, nothing of self, but all of Him. When you eat with the staff in your hand and your shoes on your feet, that does not mean that you work for salvation. It means, dear hearts, that you work from salvation; that you don’t work to be saved, but you work because you’re saved! (11)

I would not work, my soul to save,
For this my Lord has done;
But I would work like any slave
For love of His dear Son.
—Harry A. Ironside

When God made the first creation, He worked and then rested. But in God’s new creation that is us, we rest, and then we work. That’s the reason we worship on Sunday, not on Saturday. Saturday is the last day of the week. Sunday is the first day of the week. Our day, in this dispensation, begins with rest and then ends to work. Never think of Sunday as the weekend. Sunday is the first day of the week. (11)

Lastly, we will rest at the end of the age, again feeding upon the Lamb of God, Yeshua Hamashiach! (11)

Then I saw standing in the middle of the throne and of the four living creatures, and in the middle of the elders, a Lamb that appeared to have been killed. He had seven horns and seven eyes, which are the seven spirits of God sent out into all the earth. Then he came and took the scroll from the right hand of the one who was seated on the throne, and when he had taken the scroll, the four living creatures and the twenty-four elders threw themselves to the ground before the Lamb. Each of them had a harp and golden bowls full of incense (which are the prayers of the saints). They were singing a new song: “You are worthy to take the scroll and to open its seals because you were killed, and at the cost of your own blood you have purchased for God persons from every tribe, language, people, and nation. You have appointed them as a kingdom and priests to serve our God, and they will reign on the earth.” (Revelation 5:6–10 NET)

Unfulfilled Prophesies

Prophesied future Feast of Unleavened Bread Observation in the Messianic Kingdom (circa 573 B.C.) (6)

Ezekiel prophesies that it will be observed during the Messianic Kingdom. Not all of the festivals will be observed during the Messianic Kingdom, but this one will. (2)

“ ‘In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month, you will celebrate the Passover, and for seven days bread made without yeast will be eaten. On that day the prince will provide for himself and for all the people of the land a bull for a sin offering. And during the seven days of the feast he will provide as a burnt offering to the Lord seven bulls and seven rams, all without blemish, on each of the seven days, and a male goat daily for a sin offering. He will provide as a grain offering an ephah for each bull, an ephah for each ram, and a gallon of olive oil for each ephah of grain.In the seventh month, on the fifteenth day of the month, at the feast, he will make the same provisions for the sin offering, burnt offering, and grain offering, and for the olive oil, for the seven days. (Ezekiel 45:21–25 NET)

Shalom
(Peace, Wholeness, Success)


(1) Select the link to open another article in a new tab with additional information.

(2) Fruchtenbaum, A. G. (1983). The Messianic Bible Study Collection (Vol. 62, p. 10). Tustin, CA: Ariel Ministries.

(3) Booker, R. (2016). Celebrating jesus in the biblical feasts expanded edition: discovering their significance to you as a christian. Shippensburg, PA: Destiny Image.

(4) http://www.hebrew4christians.com

(5) https://www.nehemiaswall.com/aviv-barley-in-the-biblical-calendar

(6) Rusten, S. with E. Michael. (2005). The complete book of when & where in the Bible and throughout history (p. 10). Wheaton, IL: Tyndale House Publishers, Inc.

(7) Publishing, R. (2011). Feasts of the Bible: Jewish Roots of Believers in Yeshua (Jesus). Torrance, CA: Rose Publishing.

(8) Hannah, J. D. (1985). Exodus. In J. F. Walvoord & R. B. Zuck (Eds.), The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures (Vol. 1, p. 128). Wheaton, IL: Victor Books.

(9) Wenham, G. J. (1981). Numbers: an introduction and commentary (Vol. 4, p. 225). Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.

(10) Fruchtenbaum, A. G. (1983). The Messianic Bible Study Collection (Vol. 115, p. 12). Tustin, CA: Ariel Ministries.

(11) Rogers, A. (2017). Don’t Pass over the Passover. In Adrian Rogers Sermon Archive (Ex 12:1–4). Signal Hill, CA: Rogers Family Trust.

(12)  Rogers, A. (2017). The Feasts of the Lord. In Adrian Rogers Sermon Archive (Le 23:4). Signal Hill, CA: Rogers Family Trust.

(13) Norten, M. (2015). Unlocking the secrets of the feasts. Nashville: Thomas Nelson.

(14)  Smith, S., & Cornwall, J. (1998). In The exhaustive dictionary of Bible names (p. 149). North Brunswick, NJ: Bridge-Logos.

(15) Rogers, A. (2017). The Gospel according to Joseph. In Adrian Rogers Sermon Archive (Ge 41–45). Signal Hill, CA: Rogers Family Trust.

(16) Foxe, J. (2000). Foxe’s Book of Martyrs. Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson.

(17) Smith, S., & Cornwall, J. (1998). In The exhaustive dictionary of Bible names (p. 247). North Brunswick, NJ: Bridge-Logos.

(18) Finegan, J. (1998). Handbook of biblical chronology (rev. ed.). Hendrickson Publishers. (p. 363, Table 179 The dates of Nisan 14 and 15 in A.D. 27-34 (2)) 

(19) http://www.cgsf.org/dbeattie/calendar/?roman=1447+bc with Pentecost on Sivan 6 (Exodus 19:1-16) and Feast of First Fruits (if it had existed then) would have been on Nisan 16, 1447 B.C.

(I)  Neusner, J. (1988). The Mishnah : A new translation (p. 742). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

(II) Malda, B. D. (Ed.). (2015). Come and Worship: Ways to Worship from the Hebrew Scriptures (p. 62). Clarksville, MD: Lederer Books: a division of Messianic Jewish Publishers.

(III) Sklar, J. (2013). Leviticus: An Introduction and Commentary. (D. G. Firth, Ed.) (Vol. 3, p. 101). Nottingham, England: Inter-Varsity Press.

(IV) Masterman, E. W. G. (1915). Barley. In J. Orr, J. L. Nuelsen, E. Y. Mullins, & M. O. Evans (Eds.), The International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia (Vol. 1–5, p. 405). Chicago: The Howard-Severance Company.

(V) Balfour, J. H. (1885). The Plants of the Bible (p. 212). London; Edinburgh; New York: T. Nelson and Sons.

(VI) Eisenberg, R. L. (2004). The JPS guide to Jewish traditions (1st ed., p. 670). Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society.

(VII) Hannah, J. D. (1985). Exodus. In J. F. Walvoord & R. B. Zuck (Eds.), The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures (Vol. 1, p. 153). Wheaton, IL: Victor Books.

(VIII) Easton, M. G. (1893). In Easton’s Bible dictionary. New York: Harper & Brothers.

 (IX) Singer, I. (Ed.). (1901–1906). In The Jewish Encyclopedia: A Descriptive Record of the History, Religion, Literature, and Customs of the Jewish People from the Earliest Times to the Present Day, 12 Volumes (Vol. 9, p. 568). New York; London: Funk & Wagnalls.

(X) Hamilton, M. W. (2000). Elevation Offering. In D. N. Freedman, A. C. Myers, & A. B. Beck (Eds.), Eerdmans dictionary of the Bible (p. 392). Grand Rapids, MI: W.B. Eerdmans.

(XI)  (2016). The Lexham Figurative Language of the New Testament Dataset. In J. R. Westbury, J. Thompson, K. A. Lyle, & J. Parks (Eds.), Lexham Figurative Language of the Bible Glossary. Bellingham, WA: Lexham Press.

(XII) Larson, K. (2000). I & II Thessalonians, I & II Timothy, Titus, Philemon (Vol. 9, p. 331). Nashville, TN: Broadman & Holman Publishers.

(XIII) Lindsey, F. D. (1985). Leviticus. In J. F. Walvoord & R. B. Zuck (Eds.), The Bible Knowledge Commentary: An Exposition of the Scriptures (Vol. 1, p. 177). Wheaton, IL: Victor Books.

(XIV) Neusner, J. (2011). The Babylonian Talmud: A Translation and Commentary (Vol. 19, p. 617). Peabody, MA: Hendrickson Publishers.

(XV) Freeman, J. M., & Chadwick, H. J. (1998). Manners & customs of the Bible (p. 143). North Brunswick, NJ: Bridge-Logos Publishers.

(XVI) Wuest, K. S. (1961). The New Testament: an expanded translation (1 Co 5:6–8). Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans.

(XVII) Thompson, J. A. (1974). Deuteronomy: An Introduction and Commentary (Vol. 5, p. 147). Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press.

(XVIII) Keach, B. (1858). An Exposition of the Parables and Express Similitudes of Our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ (pp. 239–240). London: Aylott and Co.

(XIX) Beis Hamikdash Topics – Tour of the Temple: Class 10, The Altar

(XX) C. S. Lewis, Miracles (New York: HarperCollins, 1974), pp. 236–37.

(XXI) Hall, K. D. (2000). Libation. In D. N. Freedman, A. C. Myers, & A. B. Beck (Eds.), Eerdmans dictionary of the Bible (p. 807). Grand Rapids, MI: W.B. Eerdmans. 

(XXII)  Rogers, A. (2017). Back to Bethel. In Adrian Rogers Sermon Archive (Ge 35). Signal Hill, CA: Rogers Family Trust.

(XXIII) The only other view of the younger Jesus is when He was 12 years old. Jesus’ parents had left Jerusalem thinking He was with some of the relatives, but after a day’s journey, they realized He was not. Upon returning to Jerusalem, they found Him in the temple, both learning and teaching the religious teachers of Israel! (Luke 2:42-52) This was one of the moments when Mary was reminded of things told to her when Jesus was born (Luke 2:27-32). His mission to save humanity would come not come without some cost to her as well (Luke 2:34,35). Jesus, while obeying the fifth commandment to honor His earthly father and mother (Exodus 20:12), answered to a higher authority – a higher call than just being a good son they could be proud of in their old age. This was Mary’s first of several friendly reminders that He would be controlled by no one but God – not even Mary, His mother would be allowed to derail the mission – as the mission was to set her free, too. Realize, Jesus emptied Himself of His power and authority as God to become a man (Philippians 2:6-8). He was not born with a genetic memory knowing all things in His soul (i.e., mind, will, and emotions). Yes, in His spirit, He was the creator of all the universe, including man. However, as the Great Shepherd leader, He became flesh and lived out life on this fallen planet to show us the way. That is, when He messed His diaper like a baby, He was NOT just faking it! Jesus came as the Second Man and Last Adam and accomplished what the First Adam was supposed to do – subdue all enemies of God (Genesis 1:28). He did it with no advantage over what the First Adam had available to him. Through studying the scriptures and mentoring by the Holy Spirit, His soul learned who, what and why He was, is, and ever shall be – this knowledge He already subconsciously had in His spirit. (Psalms 119:98-104. Luke 2:40) Jesus never stopped being the eternal God; however, He voluntarily limited Himself to being a Man submitted to God the Holy Spirit. God, the Holy Spirit, performed the miracles that God the Father wanted to be performed through Jesus while He was on Earth (John 14:10). This was available to the First Adam and now available to all that are in Him (John 14:12). All hail the God that became Man to save an undeserving wretch like me!!! 

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Doulos Hal

Hal has been teaching the Bible for over three decades. Presently, He desires to honor Jesus Christ through this Internet teaching ministry, thereby glorifying the Heavenly Father in the power and presence of the Holy Spirit. He believes, second to cultivating his relationship with God, that raising his family unto the Lord is the most significant task for him while on Earth. Furthermore, Hal believes that being a successful leader in the church or workplace is no substitute for failing to be a successful leader at home.

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