The Beautiful Attitudes – Part III: Blessed are the Meek

“Blessed are the meek, for they will inherit the earth. (Matthew 5:5 NET)

The Greek word for blessed (i.e., makarios) means being fortunate, prosperous, or successful. That is, successful are those who are meek! Why? What is it to be meek? First of all, to be MEEK does NOT mean to be WEAK! Instead, meekness is strength under control. Picture a  feral horse (i.e., a Mustang)  that expends its great strength by running the fields yet accomplishes little to nothing in the way of work. However, if that same horse is “tamed,” “broken,” or “meeked,” then that same great strength – that is now under control – can be utilized to accomplish much work for its master!

Consequently, those that have been meeked (i.e., have their strength submitted or “yoked” to God’s control) will inherit the earth.

Take my yoke on you and learn from me, because I am gentle and humble in heart, and you will find rest for your souls. For my yoke is easy to bear, and my load is not hard to carry.” (Matthew 11:29–30 NET)

This is at least partially referring to a time in the future when those who have accepted Jesus as their personal Savior and Lord will receive the Kingdom of God (i.e., The New Heaven and Earth) (1) as an inheritance from God the Father.

Then the king will say to those on his right, ‘Come, you who are blessed by my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the foundation of the world. (Matthew 25:34 NET)

Realize, presently, two spiritual Kingdoms (1) exist simultaneously on Earth: God’s Kingdom, which exists wherever Holy Spirit-filled Christians live,

Now at one point the Pharisees asked Jesus when the kingdom of God was coming, so he answered, “The kingdom of God is not coming with signs to be observed, nor will they say, ‘Look, here it is!’ or ‘There!’ For indeed, the kingdom of God is in your midst.” (Luke 17:20–21 NET)
For the kingdom of God does not consist of food and drink, but righteousness, peace, and joy in the Holy Spirit. (Romans 14:17 NET)


Satan’s Kingdom of this World, which exists basically everywhere else.

We know that we are from God, and the whole world lies in the power of the evil one. (1 John 5:19 NET)
And although you were dead in your transgressions and sins, in which you formerly lived according to this world’s present path, according to the ruler of the kingdom of the air, the ruler of the spirit that is now energizing the sons of disobedience, (Ephesians 2:1–2 NET)
Do not love the world or the things in the world. If anyone loves the world, the love of the Father is not in him, because all that is in the world (the desire of the flesh and the desire of the eyes and the arrogance produced by material possessions) is not from the Father, but is from the world. (1 John 2:15–16 NET)
Adulterers, do you not know that friendship with the world means hostility toward God? So whoever decides to be the world’s friend makes himself God’s enemy. (James 4:4 NET)

In this future world, Christians will be appointed leaders under Jesus Christ based on God’s criteria for selecting leaders.

While the people were listening to these things, Jesus proceeded to tell a parable, because he was near to Jerusalem, and because they thought that the kingdom of God was going to appear immediately. Therefore he said, “A nobleman went to a distant country to receive for himself a kingdom and then return. And he summoned ten of his slaves, gave them ten minas, and said to them, ‘Do business with these until I come back.’ But his citizens hated him and sent a delegation after him, saying, ‘We do not want this man to be king over us!’ When he returned after receiving the kingdom, he summoned these slaves to whom he had given the money. He wanted to know how much they had earned by trading. So the first one came before him and said, ‘Sir, your mina has made ten minas more.’ And the king said to him, ‘Well done, good slave! Because you have been faithful in a very small matter, you will have authority over ten cities.’ Then the second one came and said, ‘Sir, your mina has made five minas.’ So the king said to him, ‘And you are to be over five cities.’ Then another slave came and said, ‘Sir, here is your mina that I put away for safekeeping in a piece of cloth. For I was afraid of you, because you are a severe man. You withdraw what you did not deposit and reap what you did not sow.’ The king said to him, ‘I will judge you by your own words, you wicked slave! So you knew, did you, that I was a severe man, withdrawing what I didn’t deposit and reaping what I didn’t sow? Why then didn’t you put my money in the bank, so that when I returned I could have collected it with interest?’ And he said to his attendants, ‘Take the mina from him, and give it to the one who has ten.’ But they said to him, ‘Sir, he has ten minas already!’‘I tell you that everyone who has will be given more, but from the one who does not have, even what he has will be taken away. But as for these enemies of mine who did not want me to be their king, bring them here and slaughter them in front of me!’ ” (Luke 19:11–27 NET)

Unfortunately, the world chooses leaders who are the opposite or counterfeit of God’s criteria, resulting in leadership diametric to God’s desires.

God is looking for those with the following qualities to serve as leaders:

Competence produces influence, and leadership, simply put, is the ability to influence others to some end. Genuine competence comes from:

  • Knowing the way (i.e., a leader has the ability to create the vision of the preferable future).
  • Going the way (i.e., a leader has “been there, done that” and has the scars of hardship to prove the competence gained. This includes being able to prioritize, execute, and achieve results).
  • Showing the way (i.e., a leader has the ability to articulate the vision in a way that empowers others to pursue that future with them. This includes the ability to build effective teams, collaborate, and inspire others). (3)

Unfortunately, competence can be imitated by stealing the ideas of others and marketing them as your own, utilizing “victory through intimidation” techniques in meetings to convince your opponents and upper management you know more than your perceived competition, or even changing what is important in the workplace so that it reflects their area of expertise and not those they see as competitors, etc.


The character of Christ Jesus is what is desired in God’s leaders (1). Leaders that will do the right thing because they know even if no one else is looking… God is always looking, and they desire to please Him!

Where can I go to escape your spirit? Where can I flee to escape your presence? If I were to ascend to heaven, you would be there. If I were to sprawl out in Sheol, there you would be. (Psalm 139:7–8 NET)
Certainly the Lord watches the whole earth carefully and is ready to strengthen those who are devoted to him. You have acted foolishly in this matter; from now on you will have war. (2 Chronicles 16:9 NET)

Godly character also includes NOT being greedy or covetous (Psalms 73:1-28).

But you choose from the people capable men, God-fearing, men of truth, those who hate bribes, and put them over the people as rulers of thousands, rulers of hundreds, rulers of fifties, and rulers of tens. (Exodus 18:21 NET)
“No one can serve two masters, for either he will hate the one and love the other, or he will be devoted to the one and despise the other. You cannot serve God and money. (Matthew 6:24 NET)
Then he said to them, “Watch out and guard yourself from all types of greed, because one’s life does not consist in the abundance of his possessions.” (Luke 12:15 NET)
Your conduct must be free from the love of money and you must be content with what you have, for he has said, “I will never leave you and I will never abandon you.”So we can say with confidence, “The Lord is my helper, and I will not be afraid. What can man do to me?” (Hebrews 13:5–6 NET)
Better is little with the fear of the Lord than great wealth and turmoil with it. (Proverbs 15:16 NET)
The blessing from the Lord makes a person rich, and he adds no sorrow to it. (Proverbs 10:22 NET)
Now godliness combined with contentment brings great profit. For we have brought nothing into this world and so we cannot take a single thing out either. But if we have food and shelter, we will be satisfied with that. (1 Timothy 6:6–8 NET)
Do not envy evil people, do not desire to be with them; for their hearts contemplate violence, and their lips speak harm. (Proverbs 24:1–2 NET)

Unfortunately, Godly character can be imitated for meetings and by performing seemingly altruistic acts. Furthermore, the motive of the heart cannot be seen by the natural human eye, and instead of doing things to bring honor to God, they are simply trying to manipulate upper management into giving them a promotion. Nevertheless, the seed of their own destruction is their greed. The Bible states that covetousness or greed will take away their life.  

Such are the ways of all who gain profit unjustly; it takes away the life of those who obtain it! (Proverbs 1:19 NET)
The one who is greedy for gain troubles his household, but whoever hates bribes will live. (Proverbs 15:27 NET)
The one who loves money will never be satisfied with money, he who loves wealth will never be satisfied with his income. This also is futile. (Ecclesiastes 5:10 NET)
Those who long to be rich, however, stumble into temptation and a trap and many senseless and harmful desires that plunge people into ruin and destruction. For the love of money is the root of all evils. Some people in reaching for it have strayed from the faith and stabbed themselves with many pains. (1 Timothy 6:9–10 NET)
Do not wear yourself out to become rich; be wise enough to restrain yourself. (Proverbs 23:4 NET)
As for the seed that fell among thorns, these are the ones who hear, but as they go on their way they are choked by the worries and riches and pleasures of life, and their fruit does not mature. (Luke 8:14 NET)
But Jesus said to them, “You are the ones who justify yourselves in men’s eyes, but God knows your hearts. For what is highly prized among men is utterly detestable in God’s sight. (Luke 16:15 NET)

In addition, those who break the laws of God and lead others to break them will be called LEAST in the Kingdom of Heaven (Matthew 5:19).

So anyone who breaks one of the least of these commands and teaches others to do so will be called least in the kingdom of heaven, but whoever obeys them and teaches others to do so will be called great in the kingdom of heaven. (Matthew 5:19 NET)

When wealth is lost, nothing is lost; when health is lost, something is lost; when character is lost, all is lost

Billy Graham

Chemistry or “being a good fit” to join a leadership team includes the characteristics of:

1) Commitment – God desires those to remain loyal to him no matter the cost. In fact, this is the question of the ages: will you obey me (1) without exception?

But even if our gospel is veiled, it is veiled only to those who are perishing, among whom the god of this age has blinded the minds of those who do not believe so they would not see the light of the glorious gospel of Christ, who is the image of God. (2 Corinthians 4:3–4 NET)
The thief comes only to steal and kill and destroy; I have come so that they may have life, and may have it abundantly. (John 10:10 NET)
There is a way that seems right to a person, but its end is the way that leads to death. (Proverbs 14:12 NET)

2) Charisma – Someone who is described as “charismatic” is generally viewed as having a very charming, persuasive personality, and often it’s viewed as an almost supernatural trait, with such individuals being remarkably skilled communicators who can often be quite convincing.

First, in my personal experience, charisma comes from having a motive to honor God in all that we say, do, think, and believe out of a heart filled with love for Him. That is, not out of obligation or legalistically.

So whether you eat or drink, or whatever you do, do everything for the glory of God. (1 Corinthians 10:31 NET)
And whatever you do in word or deed, do it all in the name of the Lord Jesus, giving thanks to God the Father through him. (Colossians 3:17 NET)
Whatever you are doing, work at it with enthusiasm, as to the Lord and not for people, because you know that you will receive your inheritance from the Lord as the reward. Serve the Lord Christ. (Colossians 3:23–24 NET)
But we have this treasure in clay jars, so that the extraordinary power belongs to God and does not come from us. (2 Corinthians 4:7 NET)
In the same way, let your light shine before people, so that they can see your good deeds and give honor to your Father in heaven. (Matthew 5:16 NET)

Secondly, a strong desire to help those you lead out of a heart filled with God’s grace, mercy, and compassion for them.

Go and learn what this saying means: ‘I want mercy and not sacrifice.’ For I did not come to call the righteous, but sinners.” (Matthew 9:13 NET)
If you had known what this means: ‘I want mercy and not sacrifice,’ you would not have condemned the innocent. (Matthew 12:7 NET)
So also faith, if it does not have works, is dead being by itself. (James 2:17 NET)
Do not withhold good from those who need it, when you have the ability to help. Do not say to your neighbor, “Go! Return tomorrow and I will give it,” when you have it with you at the time. (Proverbs 3:27–28 NET)
But whoever has the world’s possessions and sees his fellow Christian in need and shuts off his compassion against him, how can the love of God reside in such a person? (1 John 3:17 NET)

3) Communication – Effective leaders have mastered the six basic functions of management: leading, planning, organizing, staffing, controlling, and COMMUNICATING. How do the best leaders motivate and inspire their people? Through clear communication. How do the best organizations promote discipline, accountability, and strategic alignment? With clear communication. In real estate, the old cliché is “location, location, location.” In leadership, it is “communication, communication, communication.”

Whoever speaks, let it be with God’s words. Whoever serves, do so with the strength that God supplies, so that in everything God will be glorified through Jesus Christ. To him belong the glory and the power forever and ever. Amen. (1 Peter 4:11 NET)

The word communicate comes from the Latin word communicare, which means “to impart or share,” and that from the word communis, meaning “common.” The root idea of communication suggests that it is a process by which we impart ideas to one another. The aim of communication is the holding of ideas in common understanding them with the same meaning. (4)


Inheriting the Earth in the future is something to have a BEAUTIFUL ATTITUDE about when the world around us seems to be falling apart! Again, if you allow God our Father to “meek” you, you too can inherit the Earth! Do not worry if others have stolen your promotions throughout your career. Forgive them and realize God has a better leadership position for you in His Kingdom.

And God will exalt you in due time, if you humble yourselves under his mighty hand by casting all your cares on him because he cares for you. (1 Peter 5:6–7 NET)
For victory does not come from the east or west, or from the wilderness. For God is the judge! He brings one down and exalts another. (Psalm 75:6–7 NET)

Allow the tribulation from rejection to build endurance, character, and hope in you.

Then Jesus said to his disciples, “If anyone wants to become my follower, he must deny himself, take up his cross, and follow me. For whoever wants to save his life will lose it, but whoever loses his life for my sake will find it. (Matthew 16:24–25 NET)
If anyone wants to serve me, he must follow me, and where I am, my servant will be too. If anyone serves me, the Father will honor him. (John 12:26 NET)
But above all pursue his kingdom and righteousness, and all these things will be given to you as well. So then, do not worry about tomorrow, for tomorrow will worry about itself. Today has enough trouble of its own. (Matthew 6:33–34 NET)
Dear friends, do not be astonished that a trial by fire is occurring among you, as though something strange were happening to you. But rejoice in the degree that you have shared in the sufferings of Christ, so that when his glory is revealed you may also rejoice and be glad. If you are insulted for the name of Christ, you are blessed, because the Spirit of glory, who is the Spirit of God, rests on you. (1 Peter 4:12–14 NET)
Not only this, but we also rejoice in sufferings, knowing that suffering produces endurance, and endurance, character, and character, hope. And hope does not disappoint, because the love of God has been poured out in our hearts through the Holy Spirit who was given to us. (Romans 5:3–5 NET)
For by the grace given to me I say to every one of you not to think more highly of yourself than you ought to think, but to think with sober discernment, as God has distributed to each of you a measure of faith. (Romans 12:3 NET)
For many live, about whom I have often told you, and now, with tears, I tell you that they are the enemies of the cross of Christ. Their end is destruction, their god is the belly, they exult in their shame, and they think about earthly things. But our citizenship is in heaven—and we also await a savior from there, the Lord Jesus Christ, who will transform these humble bodies of ours into the likeness of his glorious body by means of that power by which he is able to subject all things to himself. (Philippians 3:18–21 NET)
Do not judge according to external appearance, but judge with proper judgment.” (John 7:24)

Oh, so you been overlooked? They have placed someone else before you? They have whispered that you are pretty small stuff, after all? And now you feel hurt because the world is saying about you the very things you have been saying about yourself? Only yesterday, you were telling God that you were nothing, a mere worm of the dust. Where is your consistency? Come on, humble yourself, and cease to care what men think.

A.W. Tozer

Recall Jesus said that He was sending us out as sheep amongst wolves.

“I am sending you out like sheep surrounded by wolves, so be wise as serpents and innocent as doves. (Matthew 10:16 NET)

To be like sheep among wolves is not a situation to envy; nevertheless, it is a situation that many Christians are familiar with. Mobs in the streets, politicians in government, neighbors in our area, and the media sometimes act like wolves, looking for prey.

Be sober and alert. Your enemy the devil, like a roaring lion, is on the prowl looking for someone to devour. (1 Peter 5:8 NET)

You may feel intimidated in such situations, yet Jesus says it is possible to live in these circumstances.

I have told you these things so that in me you may have peace. In the world you have trouble and suffering, but take courage—I have conquered the world.” (John 16:33 NET)
Take my yoke on you and learn from me, because I am gentle and humble in heart, and you will find rest for your souls. For my yoke is easy to bear, and my load is not hard to carry.” (Matthew 11:29–30 NET)

That is, the situation is not hopeless. Jesus then uses another animal to make His point about that situation, “be as wise as snakes!”

“I am sending you out like sheep surrounded by wolves, so be wise as serpents and innocent as doves. (Matthew 10:16 NET)

The word “wise” in Matthew 10:16 is the Greek word sophos, and it depicts special insight and a wise approach to a matter. The Greek literally means we must be as prudent, discerning, intelligent, thoughtful, and careful as snakes! (5)

Jesus tells His followers not to worry but instead to trust in Him. But that does not mean we should be foolish or just sit down and wait to see what happens. On the contrary, the Bible teaches us to ask for wisdom (1) 

But if anyone is deficient in wisdom, he should ask God, who gives to all generously and without reprimand, and it will be given to him. But he must ask in faith without doubting, for the one who doubts is like a wave of the sea, blown and tossed around by the wind. For that person must not suppose that he will receive anything from the Lord, since he is a double-minded individual, unstable in all his ways. (James 1:5–8 NET)

Wisdom from above, wisdom and shrewdness that makes it possible for us, like sheep, to live among a flock of wolves and survive. Again, when Jesus speaks about us as sheep in a land full of wolves, He is not giving us a picture of hopelessness and suggesting we give up.

I repeat, be strong and brave! Don’t be afraid and don’t panic, for I, the Lord your God, am with you in all you do.” (Joshua 1:9 NET)

The Christian life is always a life of overcoming, doing the impossible, and triumphing against all odds.

Who will separate us from the love of Christ? Will trouble, or distress, or persecution, or famine, or nakedness, or danger, or sword? As it is written, “For your sake we encounter death all day long; we were considered as sheep to be slaughtered.” No, in all these things we have complete victory through him who loved us! For I am convinced that neither death, nor life, nor angels, nor heavenly rulers, nor things that are present, nor things to come, nor powers, nor height, nor depth, nor anything else in creation will be able to separate us from the love of God in Christ Jesus our Lord. (Romans 8:35–39 NET)

The Christian life, even on the most basic level of survival in the face of Satanic resistance, is nothing less than a miracle.

Dear friends, do not be astonished that a trial by fire is occurring among you, as though something strange were happening to you. But rejoice in the degree that you have shared in the sufferings of Christ, so that when his glory is revealed you may also rejoice and be glad. If you are insulted for the name of Christ, you are blessed, because the Spirit of glory, who is the Spirit of God, rests on you. (1 Peter 4:12–14 NET)

For it to happen, Jesus tells us we must be shrewd and seek wisdom from above. And that takes us to another animal, the innocent dove.

“I am sending you out like sheep surrounded by wolves, so be wise as serpents and innocent as doves. (Matthew 10:16 NET)

While involved in the battle between darkness and light, good and evil, and God and Satan, be as innocent as doves! No place for conceit, hidden agendas, deception, or cunning. No foul play!

Do not be overcome by evil, but overcome evil with good. (Romans 12:21 NET)

So the wisdom Jesus commends is not wisdom to do tricks:

But the wisdom from above is first pure, then peaceable, gentle, accommodating, full of mercy and good fruit, impartial, and not hypocritical. (James 3:17 NET)

Be like doves! Jesus is not putting a heavy burden of things to do on us. He’s showing us an arsenal of weaponry that will enable us to overcome the evil one and all his hordes in this dark world.

Finally, be strengthened in the Lord and in the strength of his power. Clothe yourselves with the full armor of God so that you may be able to stand against the schemes of the devil. (Ephesians 6:10–11 NET)

The sheep will overcome the wolves!

because everyone who has been fathered by God conquers the world. This is the conquering power that has conquered the world: our faith. Now who is the person who has conquered the world except the one who believes that Jesus is the Son of God? (1 John 5:4–5 NET)

The meek shall defeat the wild! (1)

Then I entered the precincts of God’s temple, and understood the destiny of the wicked. Surely you put them in slippery places; you bring them down to ruin. How desolate they become in a mere moment! Terrifying judgments make their demise complete! They are like a dream after one wakes up. O Lord, when you awake you will despise them. (Psalm 73:17–20 NET)

Not just in a distant future, somewhere, but in our daily life, here and now. So, brother, sister: Be not afraid when you see the wolf nature in people or hear the sound of the wolves. Instead, follow the instructions of Jesus (1), and the land of wolves will become a land of sheep (1) for you! (1) Today! (2)

For he says, “I heard you at the acceptable time, and in the day of salvation I helped you.” Look, now is the acceptable time; look, now is the day of salvation! (2 Corinthians 6:2 NET)

Application Prayer:

Father, in the Name of Jesus Christ, I choose you today.  Whatever it takes to break me, do it.  I must be yours completely.  I am ready for Your Life in and through me.  Reveal the deception that is in my life.  Search me, O God, and know my heart: try me, and know my thoughts: And see if there be any wicked way in me, and lead me in the way everlasting.  Form in me a contrite, poor, humble spirit and heart that trembles at your Word.  Cause me to know Jesus, the power of His resurrection, and the fellowship of His sufferings being made conformable to His death that I might obtain the resurrection from the dead.  Set a watch, O LORD, before my mouth; keep the door of my lips.  By your mercies, I offer my body as a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable unto You, which is my reasonable service.  I choose not to be conformed to this world but instead be transformed by the renewing of my mind so that I may prove what Your good, acceptable, and perfect will is.  I am crucified with Christ; nevertheless, I live; yet not I, but Christ lives in me: and the life I now live in the flesh I live by the faith of the Son of God, who loved me and gave himself for me.  Give me according to the riches of Your glory to be strengthened with might by Your Spirit in my inner man so that Christ may dwell in my heart by faith.  That I, being rooted and grounded in love, may be able to comprehend with all saints what is the breadth, and length, and depth, and height; and to know the love of Christ, which passes knowledge, that I might be filled up to all the fullness of God.  Now unto You that is able to do exceeding abundantly above all that I ask or think, according to the power that works in us, be glory in the church by Christ Jesus throughout all ages, world without end.  That my love may abound more and more in full knowledge and all perception, so that I may distinguish the things that differ, that I may be sincere and without blame for the day of Christ being filled with the fruits of righteousness through Jesus Christ, to the glory and praise of God. That I might be filled with the knowledge of His will in all wisdom and spiritual understanding; That I might walk worthy of the Lord unto all pleasing, being fruitful in every good work, and increasing in the knowledge of God;  Strengthened with all might, according to his glorious power, unto all patience and long-suffering with joyfulness giving thanks unto you my Father.

In Jesus Christ’s Name, Amen.

(Prayer based on Psalms 34:18; Psalms 51:17; Isaiah 6:1-6; 57:15; 66:2; Philippians 3:10,11; Psalms 139:23,24; Psalm 141:3; Galatians 2:20; Romans 12:1,2; Ephesians 3:14-16; Philippians 1:9-11; Colossians 1:9-11)

The Beautiful Attitudes Series:

For further study on being meeked or broken, see:

The Five Phases of Spiritual Growth Series:

(Security, Wholeness, Success)

Then he said to them, “Therefore every expert in the law who has been trained for the kingdom of heaven is like the owner of a house who brings out of his treasure what is new and old.” (Matthew 13:52 NET)

(1) Select the link to open another article with additional information in a new tab.

(2) Adapted from Ellel Ministries International Seeds of the Kingdom Daily Devotional May 10, 2013, Surviving the Wolves by Goran Andersson.

(3) Adapted from John Maxwell’s book; The 21 Irrefutable Laws of Leadership: Follow Them and People Will Follow You.

(4)  McDill, W. V. (1999). The Moment of Truth: a Guide to Effective Sermon Delivery (p. 57). Broadman & Holman.

(5) Renner, R. (2008). Sparkling Gems from the Greek: 365 Greek Word Studies for Every Day of the Year to Sharpen Your Understanding of God’s Word (p. 661). Wordsearch.

Renner, R. (2003). Sparkling Gems from the Greek 2: 365 New Gems to Equip and Empower You for Victory Every Day of the Year (p. 711). Institute Books.

Hal has taught the Bible for over three decades. Through an interdenominational ministry dedicated to helping the local church build men for Jesus, Hal trained men, the leaders of men’s ministries, and provided pulpit supply. Before that, he was a Men’s Ministry Leader and an Adult Bible Fellowship teacher of a seventy-five-member class at a denominational megachurch. Presently, Hal desires to honor Jesus Christ through this Internet teaching ministry, thereby glorifying the Heavenly Father in the power and presence of the Holy Spirit. He believes, second to cultivating his relationship with God that raising his family unto the Lord is the most significant task for him while on Earth. Furthermore, Hal believes that being a successful leader in the church or workplace is no substitute for failing to be a successful leader at home.  DOULOS HAL'S TOPICAL INDEX

One Comment

  • Doulos Hal

    Meaning of phrases

    Victory through intimidation –  when someone tries to usurp your authority or rights by causing you to become fearful through words or actions.

    Altruistic acts – selfless Acts of Random Kindness that a person or persons perform for others.